Eudicots

 

Archaic Eudicotyledons still presenting many primitive characters such as spiralization, non-differenciation of Perianth, trimery, dialycarpy.

 

 

Order

Species Number

Eudicots

 

Ranunculales

4445

Eudicots

 

Sabiales

100

Eudicots

 

Proteales

1610

Eudicots

 

Trochodendrales

2

Eudicots

 

Buxales

72

Eudicots

 

Gunnerales

45

Key to the main orders

(Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

1. Flowers with a single whorl of perianth, pseudanthial. Often Ligneous. ...Proteales

1. Flowers clearly individualized, with a single whorl of perianth or with sepals and petals. Flowers part spirally arranged, often with many stamens. Plants often herbaceous. ...Ranunculales

Eudicots and Monocots

Eudicots
Monocots
Embryo: Two cotyledons (seed leaves) present; endosperm present or lacking in the seed
Embryo: One cotyledons (seed leaves) present; endosperm frequemtly present in the seed
Roots: The primary root often persists and becomes a strong taproot, with smaller secondary roots.
Roots: The primary root is of short duration and is soon replaced by adventitious roots, which from a fibrous root system or sometimes a bundle of fleshy roots.
Growth Form: May be either herbaceous or woody.
Growth Form: Mostly herbaceous; a few are arborescent (tree-like)
Pollen: Basically tricolpate (having three furrows or pores)
Pollen: Basically monocolpate (having one furrow or pore)
Vascular system: Usually consists of a ring of primary bundles with a cambium, and secondary growth in diameter of the stem; stem differentiated into cortex and stele
Vascular system: Consists of numerous scattered bundles, without definite arrangment and in a ground parenchyma; cambium only exceptionally present; no differentiation into cortical and stelar regions in stems
Leaves: Usually net-veined (pinnate or palmate) usually broad in shape and seldom sheathing at the base: petiole (stalk) commonly developed and often bearing stipules.
Leaves: Usually parallel-veined commonly oblong or linear in shape and often sheathing at the base; petiole (stalk) seldom developed and stipules absent.
Flowers: Parts are usually in fours or fives.
Flowers: Parts are usually in Threes or multiple of three.

 

Characters

  Gynoecium Androecium Perianth Laticifers Fruits pollination
Ranunculaceae 1-many many 5 to many no follicetum, achenetum, berries zygomorphy, actinomorphy, spurs, nectaries, anemophiles
Papaveraceae 2-8 fused with parietal placentation 4 to many 4-6 with two deciduous sepals yes capsule zygomorphy, actinomorphy, spurs, anemophiles
Berberidaceae 1 with basal ovules 4 to many often opeing by flaps trimerous 4-6, 4-6, 4-6 yes yellow berry actinomorphy, nectaries, sensitive stamens

Plates

Proteales

Proteales: Platanaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

monoecious tree with large stipules.

Inflorescence dense spherical capitulum.

Male flowers P3-4, A3-7, C0 anthers with the connective prolonged into a peltate scale.

Female flowers P3-7, A0, C5-8 carpels distinct with one ovule.

Base of achene or nut in spherical tight head with dense hairs.

 

Proteales: Proteaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Shrubs or trees from the Southern Hemisphere.

Inflorescence often showy.

Flowers 4-merous with petaloid-sepals or tepals.

Ovary 1 carpellate, Style often with conspicuous pollen presenter.

Stamens fused onto the tepals.

Fruit a follicle often woody more or less fused to accrescent bracts, or a drupe. Seeds often winged.

Note: Subfamily Grevilleoideae found in Australasia and South America has flowers paired. The subfamily Proteoideae found in Africa has single flowers.

Chile
Embothrym coccineum (Proteaceae)
Embothrym coccineum (Proteaceae)
Embothrym coccineum (Proteaceae)
Gevuina avellana (Proteceae)
Gevuina avellana (Proteceae)
Lomatia dentata (Proteaceae)
lomatia ferruginea (Proteaceae)
lomatia ferruginea (Proteaceae)

 

Ranunculales

Ranunculales:Papaveraceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbs with laticifers (white, yellow, transparent)

Sepals usually 2 and deciduous.

4-6 petals often crumpled in bud

Carpels 2 to numerous with parietal placentation (1 in Fumaria).

Stamens many (4 in fumarioideae).

Fruit a capsule. Poricide capsule in Papaver.

Note: Two subfamilies Fumarioideae and Papaveroideae

Maclaeya and Bocconia have wind pollinated flowers.

Pyrénées
Sarcocapnos enneaphylla (Papaveraceae)
Sarcocapnos enneaphylla (Papaveraceae)
Meconopsis cambrica (Papaveraceae)
Meconopsis cambrica (Papaveraceae)
Kyrgyzstan
Papaver tianshanicum (cf. nudicaule) Papaveraceae
Corydalis gortschakovii (Papaveraceae)
Corydalis fedtschenkoana Regel. Papaveraceae
Glaucium fimbrilligerum Papaveraceae

 

 

Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbs.

Flowers usually bisexual with usually an elongated receptacle (hypogynous)

Flowers 5-merous actino to zygomorphic. Often with sepals and petals distinct.

Nectary glands often present sometimes transformed into specialized nectaries or Honey-Leaf.

Carpels more or less numerous. Carpels usually free but also fused.

Stamens numerous.

Fruit an follicetum sometimes achenetum or berry.

Note: Aconitum and Delphnium have two petaline spurs that are inserted inside the hood or spur-like dorsal sepal. In Nigella those petaline spur are brightly coloured.Thalictrum has wind pollinated flowers with often unisexual flowers.

Pyrénées
Caltha palustris (Ranunculaceae)
Aquilegia pyrenaica (Ranunculaceae)
Thalictrum tuberosum (Ranunculaceae)
Pulsatilla rubra (Ranunculaceae)
Ranunuculus pyrenaeus (Ranunculaceae)
Trollius europaeus (Ranunculaceae)
Trollius europaeus (Ranunculaceae)
Thalictrum aquilegifolium (Ranunculaceae)
Kyrgyzstan
Aconitum
Aconitum
Aconitum
Aconitum
 
Delphinium dasyanthum (Ranunculaceae) Clematis songarica Bge. Ranunculaceae Clematis orientalis L. Ranunculaceae  
Chile
anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae)
anemone multifida (Ranunculaceae)
Caltha sagittata (Ranunculaceae)
Caltha sagittata (Ranunculaceae)
New Zealand
Caltha obtusa (Ranunculaceae)
Caltha obtusa (Ranunculaceae) Ranunculus reflexus (Ranunculaceae)
Ranunculus reflexus (Ranunculaceae)
 
Ranunculus haastii (Ranunculaceae)
Ranunulcus lyallii (Ranunculaceae)
 

Selected Pictures of other families in the order

Chile
Berberis montana (Berberidaceae)
Berberis darwinii (Berberidaceae) Berberis heterophylla (Berberidaceae) Berberis heterophylla (Berberidaceae)
Boquila trifoliata (Lardizabalaceae)
Boquila trifoliata (Lardizabalaceae)

Bibliography

Judd, W.S.; Campbell, C.S.; Kellogg, E.A.; Stevens, P.F. 1999. 'Plants systematics, a phylogentic approach' Sinauer Associates Inc. Publ. , Sunderland, 464p.

Heywood, V.H. 1985 'Flowering Plants of the World' Equinox publ., Oxford, 336p.

Spichiger, R.; Savolainen, V.; Perret, M.; Figeat, M. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions Published by Science Publishers, 2004

Home page

Key to the main orders

Eudicots and Monocots

Characters

Plates

Selected Photographs

Bibliography

Practical

Ranunculales

Proteales

 

     

Ranunculales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Ranunculales

Berberidaceae

701

Eudicots

Ranunculales

Eupteleaceae

2

Eudicots

Ranunculales

Circaeasteraceae

2

Eudicots

Ranunculales

Lardizabalaceae

36

Eudicots

Ranunculales

Menispermaceae

420

Eudicots

Ranunculales

Papaveraceae

760

Eudicots

Ranunculales

Ranunculaceae

2525

BERBERIDACEAE Berberis valdiviana Phil.

Questions: What kind of placentation ?

Basal placentation

discuss the structure of the androecium ?

anthers open with valves.

Perianth structure ?

The perianth is made of several whorls of sepals and 5 petals.

polination ?

active polination the stamen are sensitive and are triggered by polinators.

Floral Formula:

K3+3* C6* A6* G1Vb3-4↓
Flower with petals removed flower Abaxial view of the flower
Trigger reaction of the stamen Carpel longitudinal section of ovary
Anthers with flaps Floral Diagram

 

LARDIZABALACEAE Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Decne.

Questions: Dioecious or monoecious ?

monoecious

Why do we call the male and female flowers functionally male and female ?

because they still have reduced male or female organs: staminodes and pistillodes

Structure of the gynoecium ?

3 free carpels with short style and broad mucilaginous stigmas. Fruit is a multiple fruit of berries each with mucilaginous flesh.

Floral Formula:

♀ K3* C0 A3staminodes G6Vm

 

♂ K3* C0 A6* G3pistillodes

 

 

 

inflorescence female flower gynoecium
male flower male flower male flower with stamens removed
anther longitidinal section of a carpel cross section of a carpel
Floral diagram

 

PAPAVERACEAE Dicentra spectabilis 'Alba'

Questions: Symetry of the flower ?

Zygomorphic

How many sepals ?

there are two sepals but they are early deciduous and often overlooked.

structure of the androecium ?

fused in two bundles, each of 1 stamens and 2 half or 2 thecae.

polination ?

there is a small nectary at the base of the filaments

Floral Formula:

K2 * C4↓ A2(1+1/2+1/2)↓ G(2)Vp

 

 

 

 

 

 

flower with petals removed Flower with outer petal removed, Filament, inner petal and outer petal Androecium with nectary at the base

androecium androecium stigmas
longitudinal section of ovary Cross section of the ovary Cross section of the ovary

Floral Diagram

Outer sacate petal

 

RANUNCULACEAE Ranunculus acris
Location(s): arboretum

Questions: How are the stamens and carpels arranged ?

Many in a spiral

How can this flower be described?

Hypogynous.

Observe the sepals and find the nectary.

Some call them honey-leaves and they can be highly transformed in other members of the Ranunculaceae.

Floral Formula:

K5Ø C5Ø A* GVb1↓
Adaxial side of the flower Cross section of the flower Abaxial side of the flower
Isolated petal Nectary at the base of the petal claw View of a carpel

Floral diagram

Cross section of a carpel

 

Proteales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Proteales

Nelumbonaceae

2

Eudicots

Proteales

Proteaceae

1600

Eudicots

Proteales

Platanaceae

10

PLATANACEAE Platanus orientalis L.
Common name: ORIENTAL PLANE

Place captions on drawings: Bracts, peltate connective, tepal, carpel, receptacle

What is the type of this inflorescence ?

a head or capitulum.

Are the flower unisexual or hermaphrodite ?

Unisexual.

describe the stamens.

stamen without filament and with and expanded peltate connective.

Floral Formula:

♀ K3* C0 A3r G5-8Vm1↓

 

♂ K4* C0 A4*
Flowering Branch Cross section of the female glomerule Isolated male flower on the male glomerule
Isolated female flower isolated female flower stamens

 

Floral diagram

 

PROTEACEAE Grevillea ornithopoda Meisn.

Place captions on drawings: Stigma, Secondary polen presenter, Gynophore, Gynoecium, Nectary, paired pedicels, Tepals, fused anther

Identify the secondary pollen presenter ? What role does it have ?

the structure above the ovary and style. It acts by collecting the pollen and presenting it to the pollinators.

What type of inflorescence ?

a conflorescence each flower is in fact paired and then organised in a raceme.

Floral Formula:

[P(4)↓ A4*] G1Vb1↓

Flowers Gynoecium with with gynophore and nectraries at base. Leaves
Longitudinal section of the gynoecium Inside of tepal with anther Inflorescence rachis and pedicels
 

Practical

Ranunculales

Proteales