Saxifragales, Caryophyllales, Santalales & Malpighiales

 

Saxifragales

Dialycarpy, hypogyny and sometimes indefinite perianth.

 

 

Order

Species number

Eudicots

 

Saxifragales

2470

Caryophyllales and Santalales

Eudicotyledons presenting original characters (Perisperm, curved embryo or imperfect ovules, centrospermy, heterotrophy). Archaic characters such as the undiffrenciate perianth and trimery prevail over evolved characters such as sepals and petals and pentamery. Also curved embryo diploid perisperm rather than triploid endosperm. Production of betalinic pigments, succulence.

 

 

Order

Species number

Eudicots

 

Caryophyllales

11155

Eudicots

 

Santalales

985

Rosids: Malpighiales

Higher dialypetalous eudicots with sepals and petals, pentamerous flowers. Hypogynous, gamocarpous, disciferous or glanduliferous Rosids with simple entire leaves.

 

 

Order

Species number

Eudicots

Rosids

Malpighiales

16000

Saxifragales

Saxifragales: Saxifragaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbs.

Leaves alternate sometimes in a basal rosette. No stipules.

Perianth of 5 sepals and 5 petals. Hypanthium present.Stamens in two whorls the outer one opposite the petals. Intrastaminal nectary disc often present. Ovary superior to inferior of two carpels partly fused.

Capsule.

Pyrénées
    Kyrgyzstan

Saxifraga longifolia (Saxifragaceae)

Saxifraga longifolia (Saxifragaceae) Saxifraga longifolia (Saxifragaceae) Saxifraga hirciculus (Saxifragaceae)
       
 

Saxifraga hirciculus (Saxifragaceae)

Saxifraga komarovi (Saxifragaceae)

Saxifraga komarovi (Saxifragaceae)

 

Selected Pictures of other families in the order

Kyrgyzstan

Rhodiola litvinovii (Crassulaceae)

Orostachys thyrsiflora (Crassulaceae) Sedum ewersii (Crassulaceae) Rosularia alpestris (Crassulaceae)
Madagascar

kalanchoe beharensis (Crassulaceae)

kalanchoe tubuliflora (Crassulaceae)

kalanchoe tubuliflora (Crassulaceae)

kalanchoe(Crassulaceae)

Madeira

Aichryson divaricatum (Crassulaceae)
Aichryson villosum (Crassulaceae)

Aeonium glandulosum (Crassulaceae)

Aeonium glandulosum (Crassulaceae)

Caryophyllales

Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Annual or perennial herbs. Stems with swollen nodes.

Leaves opposite, simple and enture. Stipules sometimes present (Paronychioidae).

Flowers with 5-merous. Petals free, sepals free or fused. Stamens with outer whorl opposite the petals. Carpels fused with axile to central placentation, ovary unilocular.

Capsule opening by valves or teeth. Embryo curved.

Pyrénées
Dianthus hispanicua
Dianthus monspessulanus
Silene acaulis
Cucubalus baccifer
Chile
Kyrgyzstan
Cucubalus baccifer
Colobanthus quitensis
Colobanthus quitensis
Dianthus angrenicus
     
Silene korshinskyi
Silene korshinskyi
Acanthophyllum gypsophiloides
Cerastium lithospermifolium
  New Zealand    
Cerastium lithospermifolium
Stellaria roughii
Stellaria roughii

 

Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous often succulent and halophyte.

Leaves simple and entire. No stipules.

Inflorescence of spikes, panicles or glomerules sometimes with appendages (thorns, hooks). Bracts often well developped.

Flowers 3-5 merous with scarious perianth and no petals. Stamens opposite the sepals. Ovary superior unilocular ovule generally solitary.

Fruit an achene or circumscissile capsule. Embro curved erect or spiral.

Kyrgyzstan
Ceratocarpus arenarius
Ceratocarpus arenarius
Salsola
Salsola
    New Zealand Pyrénées
Salsola
Salsola
Einadia triandra
Amaranthaceae desert
Salicornia
Salicornia
Salsola

 

Caryophyllales: Cactaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Succulent thorny plants. Stem bearing numerous areoles often surrounded by glochids.

Leaves generally vestigial.

Flowers with many numerous petaloid tepals and stamens. Flower called receptacular 'sunken into the stem'. Ovary superior, placentation parietal.

Fruits berries.

Selected Pictures of other families in the order

Madagascar
Alluaudia ascendens (Didieraceae)
Alluaudia ascendens (Didieraceae)
Alluaudia dumosa (Didieraceae)
Alluaudia dumosa (Didieraceae)
Alluaudia procera (Didieraceae)
Alluaudia procera (Didieraceae)
Alluaudia procera (Didieraceae)
Alluaudia procera (Didieraceae)
Alluaudia procera (Didieraceae)
alluaudiopsis marnieriana (Didieraceae)
alluaudiopsis marnieriana (Didieraceae
Alluaudia procera (Didieraceae)
Madeira
Aizoon canariensis (Aizoaceae)
Aizoon canariensis (Aizoaceae) Mesembryanthemum nudiflorum (Aizoaceae)
Mesembryanthemum nudiflorum (Aizoaceae)
Chile
Maihuenia (Cactaceae)
Maihuenia (Cactaceae)
Cistanthe picta (Portulacaceae)
Cistanthe picta (Portulacaceae)
New Zealand
Hectorella caespitosa (Portulacaceae)
Hectorella caespitosa (Portulacaceae)
Neopaxia australasica (Portulacaceae)
Neopaxia australasica (Portulacaceae)

 

Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous or climbing shrubs.

Leaves alternate with a stipular sheath persistent the Ochrea.

Flowers with petals and sepals often trimerous. Hypogynous. Ovary unilocular with single ovule.

Fruits usually trigonous. Achenes surrounded by accrescent tepals.

Kyrgyzstan
Atraphaxis pyrifolia(Polygonaceae)
Atraphaxis pyrifolia(Polygonaceae)
Persicaria coriarium (Polygonaceae)
Rheum reticulatum (Polygonaceae)
New Zealand  
Rheum reticulatum (Polygonaceae) Muelhenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) Muelhenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) Muelhenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae)

Caryophyllales Characters

  Flowers Ovary Leaves
Polygonaceae 6 tepals Ovary superior of 3 fused carpels alternate
Caryophyllaceae 4-5 merous Ovary superior opposite
Amaranthaceae 4-5 merous Ovary superior alternate
Aizoaceae numerous tepals and stamens Ovary inferior to semi-inferior succulent
Cactaceae numerous tepals and stamens Ovary inferior deciduous and stem succulent

Santalales

Henning S. Heide-Jorgensen, 2008 'Parastic Flowering Plants' Brill

Loranthaceae

pic chile and New Zealand Tristerix aphyllus

Misodendraceae Chile

Santalaceae quinchamalium

pic

 

Malpighiales

Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Large variety of biological forms. Often with white or opaque exudate: latex. (laticifers)

Leaves variable sometimes with glands and ant inhabited cavities.

Inflorescence variable. In Euphorbia a cyathium with glanduliferous bracts , with several male flowers and a single female flower.

Flowers without any perianth, disciferous or with sepals. Ovary superior tricarpellate and trilocular with axile placentation.

Fruit a explosive schizocarp or capsule. Seeds often with caruncle (thickening of micropyle)

Plate 1

Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

 

 

 

 

Plate 2

Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

 

 

 

 

Plate 3

Madagascar
Euphorbia pachypodioides Euphorbia pachypodioides Euphorbia stenocalada Euphorbia stenocalada
Euphorbia
Euphorbia
Uapaca bojeri
Uapaca bojeri
Madeira
Euphorbia maderense
Euphorbia maderense
Euphorbia piscatoria
Euphorbia piscatoria

 

Malpighiales: Violaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous or shrubs.

Leaves alternate in herbaceous but opposite in some woody species. Stipulate.

Flowers 5-merous, zygomorphic. Stamens alternating with corolla lobes. Connectives prolonged by a membranous appendage. The two anterior stamens of zygomorphic flowers appendiculate and bectariferous. Ovary superior tricarpellate with parietal placentation.

Fruit loculicidal capsule sometimes exposive. Seeds often arillate.

Chile
New Zealand   Pyrénées
Viola reichii Melicytus alpinus Melicytus alpinus viola bubanii

 

Malpighiales: Passifloraceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Climbers rarely trees.

Leaves palmate-lobate often with glands and outgrowth on the petiole. Bisecting tendrils between petiole and stem. Stipules often foliaceous.

Flowers 5-merous. Stamens alternating with the petals. Extrastaminal crown (coronna) constituted by a ring of coloured filaments fixed on the border of the hypanthium. Stamens fused in a tube on an androgynophore. Ovary superior tricarpellate with parietal placentation.

Capsule or berry. Seeds arillate.

Passifloraceae
Passiflora rubra L.

Notes:Checked with 'Passion flowers' by John Vanderplank (2000). Vine, finely pubescent with 2-lobed leaves, approximately 70mm long. Leaves without nectary glands. Flowers solitary, 40mm diameter. Petals and sepals 5. Petals white, half as long as sepals. Outer corona filaments white with purple at the base. Inner corona filaments minute, few. Ovary with long persistent hairs. Fruits pink, pubescent, not tapering at the ends. (Submitted as Passiflora biflora Lam.)

flower centre flower centre

calyx calyx

longitudinal section of the flower longitudinal section of the flower

limen, nectary disc and operculum limen, nectary disc and operculum

cross section of the fruit cross section of the fruit

seeds with aril seeds with aril

flowering and fruiting branch

flowering and fruiting branch

flower

 

Malpighiales: Salicaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees. Dioecious plants.

Leaves alternate with dentate margin.

Inflorescences of unisexual catkins.

Flowers without perianth, disciferous and associated with bracts. Calyx represented by glands or a necariferous disc. Ovary bicarpelate, unilocular.

Fruit loculicidal caspule with hairy seeds.

Bibliography

Judd, W.S.; Campbell, C.S.; Kellogg, E.A.; Stevens, P.F. 1999. 'Plants systematics, a phylogentic approach' Sinauer Associates Inc. Publ. , Sunderland, 464p.

Heywood, V.H. 1985 'Flowering Plants of the World' Equinox publ., Oxford, 336p.

Spichiger, R.; Savolainen, V.; Perret, M.; Figeat, M. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions Published by Science Publishers, 2002

Home page

Saxifragales

Caryophyllales

Characters

Santalales

Malpighiales

Nigel Taylor's presentation (pdf)

Bilbliography

Practical

Saxifragales

Caryophyllales

Malpighiales

 

 

 

     

Saxifragales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Peridiscaceae

11

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Paeoniaceae

33

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Altingiaceae

13

Eudicots

Saxifragales

82

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Cercidiphyllaceae

2

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Daphniphyllaceae

10

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Crassulaceae

1370

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Aphanopetalaceae

2

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Tetracarpaeaceae

1

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Penthoraceae

2

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Haloragaceae

145

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Iteaceae

21

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Pterostemonaceae

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Grossulariaceae

150

Eudicots

Saxifragales

540

Eudicots

Saxifragales

Cynomoriaceae

2


SAXIFRAGACEAE Tellima grandiflora 'Purpurea'



Questions: Observe the position of the ovary.

A semi-inferior ovary.

How is the organ around the ovary called ?

An epigynous flower with hypanthium. the Hypanthium is the organ where the sepals, petals and stamens are attached to.

Floral Formula:

(K5* C5* A10*) -G-(2)↓Vp

longitudunal section of the flower longitudunal section of the flower
flower corolla
cross section of the flower at different points showing intrusive placentas.
Floral diagram

 

HAMAMELIDACEAE Distylium racemosum Siebold & Zucc.

Questions: Identify the inflorescence structure ?

A condensed panicle or botryoid made of male and hermaphrodite flowers.

How to call a plant with male and hermaphrodite flowers ?

Andromonoecious

Identify the structure of the flowers.

Each flower has two sepal-like bracteoles and the flowers are all contracted in a panicle looking like a single hermaphrodite flower.

Floral Formula:

♂ B2* K0 C0 A1-8*

♂♀ B2* K0 C0 A5-8* G(2)↓Va2

 

section of a male and hermaphrodite flower inflorescence
section of the flowers flowers and scales on sepals
Floral diagram

 

Caryophyllales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Droseraceae

115

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Nepenthaceae

90

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Drosophyllaceae

1

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Ancistrocladaceae

12

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Dioncophyllaceae

3

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Frankeniaceae

90

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Tamaricaceae

90

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Plumbaginaceae

836

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Polygonaceae

1110

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Rhabdodendraceae

3

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Simmondsiaceae

1

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Asteropeiaceae

8

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Physenaceae

2

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Caryophyllaceae

2200

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Achatocarpaceae

7

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Amaranthaceae

2500

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Stegnospermataceae

3

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Limeaceae

23

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Lophiocarpaceae

6

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Barbeuiaceae

1

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Aizoaceae

2020

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Sarcobataceae

2

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Phytolaccaceae

65

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Nyctaginaceae

395

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Molluginaceae

87

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Halophytaceae

1

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Didieraceae

16

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Basellaceae

20

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Montiaceae

27

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Talinaceae

22

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Portulacaceae

100

Eudicots

Caryophyllales

Cactaceae

1500

Caryophyllaceae A, B and C .

Location(s): Wild meadows.

Questions: Floral formula of Caryophyllaceae A and B.

A: K5* C5* A10* G(5)*Vc

B: K5* C5* A10* G(3)*Vc

C: K5* C5* A2-3* G(3)*Vc

A differs by having five styles instead of three..

Fruits ?

They are capsule opening by valves or teeth. A has capsule with 10 teeth; B and C have caspules with 6 teeth. Meaning 2x as many as styles.

Key out with Stace New Flora of the British Isles.

Seeds of Caryophyllaceae A. drawing of Caryophyllaceae A.
Capsule of Caryophyllaceae A. section of caspule of Caryophyllaceae A. Flower of Caryophyllaceae A.
Petal of Caryophyllaceae B. Flower of Caryophyllaceae B. Calyx of Caryophyllaceae B.
Gynoecium of Caryophyllaceae B. Flower of Caryophyllaceae C. Calyx of Caryophyllaceae C.

 

 

A: Cerastium fontanum

B: Stellaria holostea

C: Stellaria media

Gynoecium of Caryophyllaceae C. Capsule of Caryophyllaceae C.

Stace, C. 2001. 'New Flora of the British Isles' 2nd ed. Cambridge.

1. Stipules 0 ...2

2. Sepals free or joined only at extreme base ...Key B

Key B.

1. Flowers hypogynous; styles >2; fruit with > 1 seed, usually dehiscent. ...2

2. Capsule teeth or valves 2x as many as styles. ...6

6. Petals present. ...8

8. Petals entire to deeply lobed. ...9

9. Petals bifid >1/4 way to base. ...10

10. Styles 4-5. ...Cerastium

10. Styles 3. ...11

11Petals divided > 1/2 way. ...Stellaria

Plant A: Cerastium

1. Perennial, with usually +/- procumbent non-flowering shoots as well as more erect flowering shoots. ...2

2. Styles 5; capsule teeth 10. ...3

3 Petals <1.7(2)x as long as sepals. ...C. fontanum

Plant B: Stellaria

1. All leaves sessile; stem strongly ridged to square in section. ...6

6. Bracts entirely scarious; petals bifid much >1/2 way to base. ...7

7. Petals longer than sepals. ...8

8. Bracts and sepals pubescent at margin. S. graminea

Plant C: Stellaria

1. Lower leaves petiolate. ...2

2. Stems with 1 line of hairs down each internode. ...3

3.Stems with 1 line of hairs. ...4

4. Stamens <8. ...5

5. Petals present, stamens 3. S. media

 

Portulacaceae Claytonia perfoliata

Questions: What is the most distinct character of this flower ?

The two bracts or sometimes called sepals that surround the flower.

What is a characteristic of the seed ?

It has a curved embryo and an elaiosome.

Floral Formula:

B2* K0 C5* A5* G(3)*Vb3

section of the flower Flower with bracts
Inflorescence with bracts flowers
section of the ovary seed

 

Malpighiales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Achariaceae

145

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Goupiaceae

2

Eudicots

Malpighiales

800

Eudicots

Malpighiales

935

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Lacistemataceae

14

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Salicaceae

1010

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Lophopyxidaceae

1

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Putanjivaceae

210

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Ctenolophonaceae

3

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Erythroxylaceae

240

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Rhizophoraceae

149

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Linaceae

300

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Irvingiaceae

10

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Ixonanthaceae

21

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Humiriaceae

50

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Pandaceae

15

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Bonneticaceae

35

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Clusiaceae

595

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Calophyllaceae

460

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Hypericaceae

560

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Podostemonaceae

270

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Elatinaceae

35

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Malpighiaceae

1250

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Ochnaceae

495

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Peraceae

135

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Rafflesiaceae

20

Eudicots

Malpighiales

5735

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Phyllanthaceae

1745

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Picrodendraceae

80

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Balanopaceae

9

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Trigoniaceae

28

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Dichapetalaceae

165

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Chrysobalanaceae

460

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Euphroniaceae

1-2

Eudicots

Malpighiales

Caryocaraceae

21

EUPHORBIACEAE Euphorbia myrsinites L.

Questions: Why this inflorescence can be qualified as a pseudanth ?

Compact inflorescence of unisexual flowers grouped together to form a larger 'Flower'-like structure.

Identify the pedicel and filament of a male flower.

Male flowers are located in between bracts and hairs within the cyathium. Each male flower has a pedicel and the junction with the filament is called the pericladium.

Structure of the ovary ?

Three fused carpels in axile placentation. Three locular each one seeded. Seed with caruncle.

Floral Formula:

♂ B(5) K0 C0 A1

♀ B(5) K0 C0 A0 G(3)*Va3

Cyathium male flower
cyathium and cross section of the ovary seed with caruncle
   
Floral diagram

 

PASSIFLORACEAE Passiflora X violacea

Questions: Put the following caption on the drawing Hypanthium, Androgynophore, Operculum, Corolla, Calyx, Bracts, Outer coronna, Inner coronna, Ovary, Stigmas, Anther, Nectary disc.

Identify the ovary and the structure where it is located.

The Androgynophore.

Placentation ?

Three fused carpels in parietal placentation. Ovules many arillate.

Floral Formula:

B3* K5* C5*+coronna G(3)Vp

ovary Longitudinal section of the flower

corona longitudinal section of the flower showing base of androgynophore, limen, operculum and nectary.
stigmas stigmas and cross section of the ovary
Floral diagram

 

VIOLACEAE Viola riviniana Rchb.

Questions: Observe and dissect the androecium.

Five stamens without filament. All with an extended scarious connective forming a cone around the ovary. The two anterior stamens have a nectariferous spur on the back.

Pollination ?

Insect pollinated. When reaching for the nectar the insect pull apart the connectives and pollen is released from the cone. The stigmas has a apical cavity which is isolated and avoids self pollination.

Floral Formula:

K5* C5↓ A3+2↓ G (3)↓Vx∞

Floral diagram
Leaves and stipules Flower
Ovary and cross section of the ovary Longitudinal section of a flower
Anterior and Posterior stamen

 

 

Practical

Saxifragales

Caryophyllales

Malpighiales