Euasterids 1

 

Euasterids

Gamopetalous and untegmic ovule (having only one envelope around the nucellus).

Archaic Euasterids

Hypogynous asterids with polystemous or one whorl of stamens. Sometimes still dialypetalous.

 

 

 

Order

Species Number

Eudicots

Asterids

Euasterids

Cornales

590

Eudicots

Asterids

Euasterids

Ericales

11515

Key to main orders

(Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

1. Flowers generally dialypetalous, inferovariate and one whorl of stamens opposite the petals, flowers small and grouped in dense inflorescences. ...Cornales

1. Flowers generally gamopetalous (when they are dialypetalous, it is the androecium that presents different types of fusion), superovariate (exception in Lecythidaceae and Ericaceae), polystemonous or one whorl of stamens. ...Ericales

Euasterids 1

Hypogynous higher asterids with one whorl of stamens opposite the petals or fewer stamens. Presence of iridoids or alkaloids. Often a bilocular superior ovary with several ovules.

 

 

 

Order

Species Number

Eudicots

Asterids

Euasterids 1

Gentianales

16637

Eudicots

Asterids

Euasterids

Solanales

4080

Eudicots

Asterids

Euasterids

Lamiales

23275

Key to main orders

(Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

1. Corolla generally actinomorphic, funnel-shaped, twisted aestivation. Stamens alternating with the petals.

2. Leaves opposite. ...Gentianales

2. Leaves alternate. ...Solanales

1. Corolla generally zygomorphic. Flowers with stamens alternating with the petals or fewer stamens (4 or 2 stamens). Stamens sometimes didynamous. ...Lamiales

Cornales

Cornales: Cornaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees, shrubs.

Leaves opposite, rarely alternate, simple, entire. Secondary venation surved at the margin.

Inflorescence symose and umbellate often surrounded by large petaloid bracts.

Flowers 4-merous, carpels 2, one ovule oer locule. Petals free. Flowers epigynous.

Fruit a drupe with one to five sinuous or winged seeds.

 

Chile

Loasa acerifolia (Loasaceae)

Loasa acerifolia (Loasaceae) Scyphanthus (Loasaceae) Loasa nana (Loasaceae)

Loasa nana (Loasaceae)

Caiophora coronata (Loasaceae)

Caiophora coronata (Loasaceae) Hydrangea serratifolia (Hydrangeaceae)

 

Ericales

Ericales: Primulaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous.

Leaves often in rosettes.

Flowers 5-merous, gamopetalous, hypogynous. Filaments attached to corolla tube and opposite the lobes. Ovary superior with central placentation. Heterostyly common.

Fruit a capsule with valves or circumscissile (Anagallis).

 

 

Pyrénées
Primula farinosa Primula hirsuta Primula hirsuta Soldanella alpina
Kyrgyzstan  

Soldanella alpina

Primula nivalis var. farinosa

Androsace akbaitalensis

Cortusa matthioli

 

Ericales: Theaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees or shrubs.

Leaves grouped in bunches at the tips of branches.

Flowers 5-merous, spiro-cyclic (some parts arranged in a spiral others in whorls). Petals free, stamens often numerous united in bundles. Ovary superior multilocular.

Fruit a loculicidal capsule sometimes a berry.

 

 

Ericales: Ericaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Shrubs, rarely trees, climbers or herbaceous.

Leaves often in the form of needles (ericoid) with recurved margins.

Flowers 5-merous, gamopetalous, hypogynous. Filaments free attached to receptacle, anthers with poricidal dediscence, often with bicornous appendages.

Fruit a capsule or berry, seeds small.

 

Pyrénées
    Chile

Daboecia cantabrica

Daboecia cantabrica Rhododendron ferrugineum Gaultheria phillyreifolia
  New Zealand    

Gaultheria phillyreifolia

Dracophyllum townsonii

Dracophyllum townsonii Dracophyllum muscoides
 

Dracophyllum muscoides
Dracophyllum traversii
Dracophyllum traversii Gaultheria depressa

Gentianales

Gentianales: Gentianaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous, sometimes saprophytic.

Leaves opposite-decussate, simple and entire. Stipules absent.

Flowers 5-merous. Petals fused, corolla lobes with twisted aestivation (overlapping to the right). Stamens opposite the petals. Nectary glands or disc at the base of the superior ovary. Carpels 2 in parietal placentation.

Fruit a septicidal capsule.

Pyrénées

Blackstonia perfoliata

Blackstonia perfoliata Gentiana acaulis Gentiana acaulis

Gentiana acaulis

Gentiana vernalis

Gentianella ciliata

Gentianella ciliata

 

Gentianales: Rubiaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees, shrubs, herbaceous or climbers.

Leaves opposite, decussate. Leaves simple with entire margins often with domatia. Stipules large interpetiolar with colleters on inner surface.

Flowers 5-merous, epigynous. Petals fused. Stamens fused to the corolla tube, opposite the petals. Ovary inferior with a bifid style often heterostylous or with a secondary pollen presenter. Carpels 2.

Fruit a capsule, berry, achene or drupe. Sometimes forming compound fruits or associated with accrescent calyx lobes.

 

Madeira   Madagascar  

Phyllis nobla

Phyllis nobla Psychotria sp. Psychotria sp.
  New Zealand    
Euclinia suavissima Coprosma perpusilla Coprosma perpusilla Coprosma sp.
Coprosma atropurpurea Coprosma cf. propinqua Coprosma propinqua Coprosma dumosa
   
Coprosma sp. Coprosma rotundifolia    

 

Gentianales: Apocynaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees, shrubs or herbaceous.

Leaves opposite, simple and entire. Stipules absent.

Flowers 5-merous. Petals fused, corolla lobes with twisted aestivation (overlapping to the left ot to the right). Stamens opposite the sepals. Nectary glands or disc at the base of the superior ovary. Carpels 2 free, linked together only by style and stigmas. Style often ticken at apex to form a cylinder or stylar head.

Fruit two follicles (schizocarp) or a berry. Seeds crowned with a tuft of hairs.

In Asclepioideae the anthers are fused to the style (gynogium), the thecae are in the shape of pollinia fused to the opposite thecae by the stylar head secretion and linked one another by a translator arm.

Pyrénées
  Madagascar  

Vincetoxicum hirundinaria

Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Cryptostegia grandiflora Cryptostegia grandiflora
 

Ichnolepis tuberosa

Ichnolepis tuberosa

Pachypodium geayii

Pachypodium

Pachypodium Pachypodium Petchia erythrocarpa

Petchia erythrocarpa

Voacanga thouarsii Voacanga thouarsii Stapelianthus decaryi Catharanthus roseus
 
Catharanthus roseus Cerbera manghas    

Solanales

Solanales: Solanaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous.

Leaves alternate, simple, entire. No stipules.

Flowers 5-merous. Petals fused. Stamens fused to the corolla tube and opposite the petals. Anthers often connivent and with poricidal dehiscence. Ovary superior, bilocular, placentation axile (placentas often large).

Fruit a berry, capsule often associated with accrescent calyx.

 

Chile

Fabiana imbricata

Fabiana imbricata Jaborosa Jaborosa
Cestrum parqui Cestrum parqui Schizanthus hookeri Schizanthus hookeri
New Zealand     Madagascar

Solanum laciniatum

Solanum laciniatum

Solanum laciniatum

Solanum tulearensis

 

Solanales: Boraginaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous or trees.

Leaves alternate, simple often rough hairy, rugose.

Inflorescence scorpioid more rarely helicoid cymes.

Flowers 5-merous, petals fused, actinomorphic. Stamens fused to the corolla tube and opposite the petals. Ovary superior bicarpellate generally forming four locules by the formation of a false septum; style gynobasic, sometimes terminal.

Fruits nuts or schizocarps of four nutlets.

 

Pyrénées
  Madagascar  

Echium asperrimum

Echium asperrimum Cordia mairei Cordia mairei
Kyrgyzstan      

Lepichiniella seravschanica

Lindelofia macrostyla

Nonnea caspica Rindera austroechinata

Selected picture of families within Solanales

Pyrénées

Cuscuta (Covolvulaceae)

Cuscuta (Covolvulaceae) Convolvulus cantabricus (Covolvulaceae) Convolvulus arvensis (Covolvulaceae)
Madeira     Madagascar

Convolvulus massonii (Covolvulaceae)

Convolvulus massonii (Covolvulaceae)

Convolvulus massonii (Covolvulaceae)

Hildebrandtia austinii (Covolvulaceae)
 
Bonamia spectabilis (Covolvulaceae)
Evolvulus nummularius (Covolvulaceae)
Ipomoea fistulosa (Covolvulaceae)

Ipomoea fistulosa (Covolvulaceae)

Ipomoea pes-caprae (Covolvulaceae) Ipomoea pes-caprae (Covolvulaceae) Operculina turpethum (Covolvulaceae) Operculina turpethum (Covolvulaceae)
    Kyrgyzstan  
Turbina stenosiphon (Covolvulaceae) Turbina stenosiphon (Covolvulaceae) Convolvulus tragacanthoides Convolvulus tragacanthoides

Lamiales

Lamiales: Oleaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees or shrubs.

Leaves opposite simple or compound pinnate. Often with peltate hairs.

Flowers tetramerous. Petals fused. Stamens fused to the corolla tube, only 2.

Fruit variable.

 

 

Lamiales: Gesneriaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous often epiphytes.

Leaves opposite, simple entire or dentate often anisophyllous.

Flowers 5-merous. Petals fused, corolla zygomorphic, hypogynous. Stamens 4, anthers conniving in twos or fours sometimes free. Ovary superior or semi-inferior. Carpels 2 fused in parietal placentation.

Fruit a capsule sometimes a berry.

 

Pyrénées
  Chile  

Ramonda myconi

Ramonda myconi Mitraria coccinea Mitraria coccinea
 
 

Asteranthera ovata

Asteranthera ovata

   

 

Lamiales: Plantaginaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous.

Leaves alternate or opposite non stipulate.

Flowers 4-5 merous. Corolla fused, zygomorphic or nearly actinomorphic (Plantago). Stamens 4, didynamous sometimes with a staminode. Anthers sagitate with longitudinal dehiscence. Carpels 2 with axile placentation.

Fruit a septicidal capsule sometimes porcide.

 

Pyrénées

Antirrhinum majus

Antirrhinum majus Veronica fruticulosa Linaria alpina
Madeira   Chile  
Isoplexis sceptrum

Isoplexis sceptrum

Ourisia ruelloides

Ourisia ruelloides

Kyrgyzstan
Lagotis integrifolia Lagotis integrifolia Veronica porphyriana Linaria transiliensis
New Zealand
Chionohebe pulvinaris Chionohebe thomsonii Hebe hectorii Hebe hectorii

 

Lamiales: Orobanchaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Hemiparasitic to parasitic herbaceous.

Leaves opposite or alternate sometimes reduced to scales. No stipules.

Flowers 5-merous. Corolla fused, zygomorphic, hypogynous. Stamens 4 didynamous. Anthers sagitatte with longitudunal dehiscence. Carpels 2 with axile or parietal placentation.

Fruit a capsule.

 

Pyrénées
    Kyrgyzstan

Pedicularis sylvatica

Pedicularis sylvatica Lathraea clandestina Leptorhabdos parviflora
 

Pedicularis anthemifolia

Pedicularis krylovii

Pedicularis rhinanthoides

Pedicularis rhinanthoides

 

Lamiales: Scrophulariaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous or shrubs.

Leaves opposite or alternate, simple.

Flowers 5-merous. Corolla fused, zygomorphic. Stamens fused to the corolla tube often with a fifth staminode. Anthers with connivent pollinia, opening by a distal pore.Carpels 2 fused in axile placentation.

Fruit a septicidal capsule or a schizocarp of two achenes.

 

Pyrénées
  Selected picture of families within Scrophulariaceae s.l. in Chile

Verbascum nigrum

Verbascum nigrum Calceolaria uniflora Calceolaria uniflora
Calceolaria Calceolaria tenella Calceolaria Calceolaria biflora
Calceolaria biflora Calceolaria arachnoidea Calceolaria arachnoide Mimulus luteus

 

Lamiales: Bignoniaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees, shrubs or climbers.

Leaves opposite variously compound sometimes terminated by tendrils.

Flowers 5-merous. Corolla fused. Flowers zygomorphic often bilabiate. Stamens 4,didynamous plus one staminode. Stamens fused to the corolla tube at the base. Anthers with divergent thecae forming an arrowhead. Ovary superior bicarpellate and multiovulate..

Fruit elongated capsule with numerous winged seeds.

 

Madagascar

Ophiocolea cauliflora

Ophiocolea cauliflora Phyllarthron Phyllarthron

 

Lamiales: Acanthaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous sometimes shrubs or climbers.

Leaves opposite often decussate.

Inflorescence often with well-developed coloured bracts.

Flowers 5-merous, zygomorphic, hypogynous. Corolla bilabiate. Stamens 4 didynamous, anthers appendiculate. Ovary superior bicarpellate, style terminal. Few ovules per locule.

Fruit a loculicidal capsule with propulsive dehiscence: the seeds are fixed on hooks of a retinaculum.

 

Madagascar

    Oplonia vincoides  

 

Lamiales: Lamiaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous aromatic plants. Young stem quadrangular.

Leaves opposite decussate, simple.

Inflorescence in whorls of axillary cymes.

Flowers 5-merous, zygomorphic, hypogynous. Corolla bilabiate, the lower lip with three lobes the upper with two lobes. Stamens 4 didynamous. Carpels 2, divided by a false septum forming four uniovulate locules, style gynobasic.

Fruit a schizocarp of four nutlets sometimes a drupe.

 

Pyrénées
  Madeira  

Ajuga pyramidalis

Ajuga pyramidalis Cedronella canariensis Cedronella canariensis
  Kyrgyzstan    

Thymus caespitosus

Dracocephalum bipinnatum

Dracocephalum diversifolium

Dracocephalum imberbe

Dracocephalum komarovii
Dracocephalum oblongifolium

Dracocephalum origanoides

Dracocephalum stamineum

Lagochilus seravschanicus Lagochilus seravschanicus Leonurus pseudopanzerioides Perovskia scrophulariifolia
Nepeta pulchella Salvia sclarea Salvia sclarea Scutellaria oligodonta
Madagascar

Clerodendrum

Clerodendrum Karomia Karomia

 

Lamiales: Verbenaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous, trees or climbers. Stem quadrangular.

Leaves opposite, simple.

Inflorescence cyme, raceme or spike.

Flowers 5-merous, zygo to actinomorphic. Ovary of 2 carpels divided by a false septum forming four uniovulate locules, style terminal.

Fruit a schizocarp of nutlets, drupe or capsule.

 

Chile

Junellia tridens

Junellia tridens

Junellia trifurcata

Junellia trifurcata

Selected picture of families within Lamiales

Pyrénées
  Madagascar  

Pinguicula vulgaris (Lentibulariaceae)

Pinguicula vulgaris (Lentibulariaceae) Uncarina decaryi (Pedaliaceae) Uncarina decaryi (Pedaliaceae)
 

Uncarina decaryi (Pedaliaceae)

Uncarina decaryi (Pedaliaceae)

Utricularia livida (Lentibulariaceae)

Utricularia livida (Lentibulariaceae)

Bibliography

Judd, W.S.; Campbell, C.S.; Kellogg, E.A.; Stevens, P.F. 1999. 'Plants systematics, a phylogentic approach' Sinauer Associates Inc. Publ. , Sunderland, 464p.

Heywood, V.H. 1985 'Flowering Plants of the World' Equinox publ., Oxford, 336p.

Spichiger, R.; Savolainen, V.; Perret, M.; Figeat, M. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions Published by Science Publishers, 2004

Home page

Cornales

Ericales

Gentianales

Solanales

Lamiales

David Goyder's presentation (pdf)

Bibliography

Practical

Cornales

Ericales

Gentianales

Solanales

Lamiales

 

 

     

Cornales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Cornales

Loasaceae

265

Eudicots

Cornales

190

Eudicots

Cornales

22

Eudicots

Cornales

85

Eudicots

Cornales

Curtisiaceae

1

Eudicots

Cornales

Grubbiaceae

3

Eudicots

Cornales

Hydrostachyaceae

20

CORNACEAE Nyssa sylvatica

Questions: Observe the two kind of flowers in this dioecious species.

There are female trees with flowers made of an inferior ovary and often a few staminodes or reduced stamens. There are male trees with flowers without ovary and with well developped stamens sunk into a conspicuous nectary disc.

Floral Formula:

♀ P7* C0 A0 Ĝ(2)↓Vx2

♂ P7* C0 A10* G0

 

female flowers female flowers
female flower cross section of the ovary
male flower male flower
Floral diagram

 

CORNACEAE Cornus kousa var. chinensis
Geography: Hubei Findspot: Shennongjia Forest District, Alt: 1800 m

Questions: Observe the inflorescence.

The inflorscence is a capitulum of dense sessile flowers inserted on a swollen receptacle and with 4 large spreading colourfull bracts.

Isolate individual flower and give its morphology.

Each flower is sunken inside the fleshy receptacle. The sepals are short and fleshy, the stamens are deciduous, but like in Nyssa the ovary is inferior and topped with a conspicuous nectary disc.

Floral Formula:

K4* C4* A4↓ Ĝ(2)↓Vx2

 

 

 

inflorescence Flower
longitudinal section of the capitulum flower isolated
Floral diagram

 

HYDRANGEACEAE Deutzia x rosea
Taxon notes: Deutzia gracilis x Deutzia purpurascens

Questions: Observe and identify the corolla aestivation.

The corolla has a valvate aestivation

What is the particularity of the androecium ?

It is formed of two whorls of stamens. The stamens have a broad connective. The inner stamens have their anther inserted in the middle of the filaments but the outer ones have two teeth on each side of the anthers.

How Deutzia differs from Philadelphus ?

Philadelphus has 4-merous flowers and does not have stellate hairs.

Floral Formula:

K5* C5* A5+5↓ Ĝ(3)↓Vx∞
flowering branch Flower bud with corolla aestivation
androecium cross section of the ovary
nectary disc inner and outer stamens
Floral diagram ovary indumentum

 

Ericales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Ericales

Balsaminaceae

1001

Eudicots

Ericales

Marcgraviaceae

130

Eudicots

Ericales

Tetrameristaceae

5

Eudicots

Ericales

Polemoniaceae

385

Eudicots

Ericales

Fouquieriaceae

11

Eudicots

Ericales

Lecythidaceae

310

Eudicots

Ericales

Sladeniaceae

3

Eudicots

Ericales

Pentaphylacaceae

337

Eudicots

Ericales

Sapotaceae

1100

Eudicots

Ericales

Ebenaceae

548

Eudicots

Ericales

Primulaceae

2590

Eudicots

Ericales

Mitrastemonaceae

2

Eudicots

Ericales

Theaceae

195

Eudicots

Ericales

Symplocaceae

320

Eudicots

Ericales

Styracaceae

160

Eudicots

Ericales

Diapensiaceae

18

Eudicots

Ericales

Actinidiaceae

355

Eudicots

Ericales

Roridulaceae

2

Eudicots

Ericales

Sarraceniaceae

15

Eudicots

Ericales

Clethraceae

75

Eudicots

Ericales

Cyrillaceae

2

Eudicots

Ericales

2995

Source: Tresco Abb. Gdn. (TRAG)


Ericaceae
Erica cerinthoides L.

Notes: Section Dasyanthes. Inflorescence terminal in compact capitula. Flowers with white-pink corollas, and hairy abaxially. Corolla mouth closed. Anthers without expanded connectives. Leaves involute, densely hairy abaxially and sparsely long hairy adaxially.

Questions: Observe the leaves.

The leaves are typically ericoid with recurved margins and dense hairs abaxially.

Key out with Checked with Schumann Kirsten 'Ericas of South Africa' and Flora capensis vol 4.

stigmas stigmas

corolla mouth corolla mouth

stigmas stigmas

anthers and style anthers and style

section of the ovary section of the ovary

abaxial leaf surface abaxial leaf surface

flowering branch

inflorescence

flowers

 

Gentianales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Gentianales

13150

Eudicots

Gentianales

Gentianaceae

1655

Eudicots

Gentianales

Loganiaceae

420

Eudicots

Gentianales

Gelsemiaceae

11

Eudicots

Gentianales

4555

RUBIACEAE Leptodermis
Geography: Xizang: Maizhokunggar Co. E of Mi La. Alt: c3775 m, 09/1995
Field notes: W-facing steep stony hillside. With Quercus semecarpifolia, Hippophae rhamnoides, Berberis, Spiraea.

Questions: Observe and dissect the inflorescence.

The inflorescence are small cymes, each flower had an inferior ovary concealed by two membranous and fused bracts.

Observe and dissect the ovary and fruit.

The inferior ovary is made of 5 fused carpels but only two are fertile. Only 3-5 styles develop. The fruit is a capsule opening with an operculum as well as loculicidally into 5 valves. The 2 seeds later develop an adherent branched aril.

Floral Formula:

K(5)* [C(5)* A5↓] Ĝ(2+3r)↓Vx2

Key out using Flora of China online (www.eFloras.org)

+ Aril adherent to testa (18)

+ 18 Bracteoles connate (19)

+ 19 Bracteoles obviously longer or shorter than calyces (24)

+ 24 Bracteoles obviously longer than calyces (25)

+ 25 Stigmas usually 5-lobed (26)

+ 26 Leaves hairy on both surfaces, at least ciliate along margins (28)

+ 28 Stipules broadly triangular, cuspidate-apiculate; calyx lobes obtuse to truncate. 19 L. pilosa

inflorescence Flower
Flowering branch
cross section of the ovary longitudinal section of the flower
interpetiolar stipule flower base and bract
immature fruit fruits on voucher (K)
Floral diagram seed with operculum at the top on voucher (K)

 

APOCYNACEAE Vinca minor 'Variegata Alba'

Questions: Observe and dissect the gynoecium.

The gynoecium is formed of two carpels that are only fused at teh apex. The style is topped by a stylar head with a viscin secretion disc, a stigmatic surface and a pollen scraper zone. Two nectary scales are placed on the side of the carpels.

Pollination ?

This flower show a typical example of secondary pollen presentation. The pollen is released onto the stylar head and the viscin secretion disc, later the pollen is pushed outside by the pollen scraper. Pollination in Vinca minor happens only very exceptionally

Floral Formula:

K(5)* [C(5)* A5↓] G (2)↓Vx∞

 

stigmas
flowering branch pollen scraper
Longitudinal section of a flower gynoecium and androecium
gynoecium Floral diagram

 

 

 

In some spare time, I sought to understand the organisation of the central part of the Stapeliad flowers, and at first I had much difficulty. Then, bit by bit, I came to understand the different mechanisms; but I realised that they are always difficult to explain to others. Then, one day, I had a great idea: why not make a three-dimensional model? Then a second idea: why not make it of card so it can be taken apart- as I do the geometrical models I make for my pupils? Hence the birth of Stapelia geometricalis, presented here. Perhaps this model may be useful to some readers of Asklepios - for their own comprehension, for displays, ... For you to judge!

Stapelia geometricalis in Asklepios 16

created by Michel Chatelain
How to make Stapelia geometricalis (staminal column)
I Photocopy the plan onto light cardboard, perhaps with enlargement.
2 Cut out the pieces and prepare the folds y
A staminal tube and inner corona (do not forget to open up the triangular holes)
B outer corona lobes
C apex of style and inner corona
D inner corona
E pollinarium
3 Fold out the lobes B from part A (at point a)
4 Glue the apex of the inner corona: each tab d of the segments D to the adjacent segment in order to give a bundle (do not glue too precisely, so that the corona remains pliable).
(These are the only parts to glue: all the rest can be taken apart.)
5 Assemble the tube A (by the slots c)
6 Set the “cover” in place (the small tabs on the tube A support the cover, and the small tabs on the cover C are pushed down inside between these, to support the inner corona)
7 Fix the inner corona D onto the tube A (by the slots d)
8 Insert the pollinaria on the inner corona below the inner corona lobes, or in position filling the clefts of the tube.

 

Solanales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Solanales

Montiniaceae

5

Eudicots

Solanales

Sphenocleaceae

2

Eudicots

Solanales

Hydroleaceae

12

Eudicots

Solanales

Convolvulaceae

1625

Eudicots

Solanales

Solanaceae

2460

 

Lamiales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Lamiales

Acanthaceae

4000

Eudicots

Lamiales

Bignoniaceae

800

Eudicots

Lamiales

Byblidaceae

6

Eudicots

Lamiales

Calceolariaceae

260

Eudicots

Lamiales

Carlemanniaceae

5

Eudicots

Lamiales

Gesneriaceae

3200

Eudicots

Lamiales

7173

Eudicots

Lamiales

Lentibulariaceae

320

Eudicots

Lamiales

Linderniaceae

195

Eudicots

Lamiales

Martyniaceae

16

Eudicots

Lamiales

615

Eudicots

Lamiales

Orobanchaceae

2060

Eudicots

Lamiales

Paulowniaceae

6

Eudicots

Lamiales

Pedaliaceae

70

Eudicots

Lamiales

Phrymaceae

234

Eudicots

Lamiales

Plantaginaceae

1700

Eudicots

Lamiales

Plocospermataceae

1

Eudicots

Lamiales

Schlegeliaceae

28

Eudicots

Lamiales

1700

Eudicots

Lamiales

Stilbaceae

39

Eudicots

Lamiales

Tetrachondraceae

3

Eudicots

Lamiales

Thomandersiaceae

6

Eudicots

Lamiales

Verbenaceae

918

OLEACEAE Chionanthus retusus

Questions: What is the most distinctive character in this flower ?

There are only two stamens in each flower. They are fused onto the short corolla tube and the flower is 4-merous.

Floral Formula:

K(4)* [C(4)* A2]↓ G (2)↓Vx4

Floral diagram:

flower gynoecium and cross section of the ovary
cross section of the ovary androecium and gynoecium
Longitudinal section of the corolla

 

SCROPHULARIACEAE and PLANTAGINACEAE

Questions: Observe the differences between Plantago, Veronica and Scrophularia.

Plantago has regular 4-merous flower with 4 stamens and a reduced corolla. Veronica has a zygomorphic flower with only stamens. Scrophularia has 5-merous flowers with 4 stamens, 1 staminode and the thecae of each anther are fused and open with a single slit.

Explain the pollination mechanism in Plantago?

The flowers are protogynous. The style develop first and is receptive it later withers and the stamens then reach maturity. It is adapted to wind pollination.

Floral Formula:

K(4-5)* [C(4-5)*↓ A2-4↓] G (2)↓Vx∞

Floral diagram of Scrophularia:

Plantago (Plantaginaceae) Veronica (Plantaginaceae) Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae)
flowering branch flower flower
flower with stamens flower flower with staminode
flower with styles section of the ovary cross section of the ovary
flower at different stages capsule anther

 

LABIATAE Nepeta macrantha


LABIATAE Salvia transsylvanica

Questions: Observe and dissect the androecium.

In Nepeta the androecium is made of 4 stamens but in Salvia there are onlyb 2 stamens and they are highly modified.

What are the similarities ?

Bilabiate corolla, anther with parallel thecae, gynoecium of 4 nutlets with a gynobasic style, bifid stigmas. Nectary scale at the base of the ovary.

Explain the pollination mechanism in Salvia?

The stamens have a short filament which is jointed with a very long connective. A fertile thecae is hanging from the top of corolla, the other thecae inside the corolla tube is sterile and adnate to the other stamen sterile thecae. The hinge between the filament and the connective allows the stamen to go down when a pollinator accesses the corolla tube which is then covered with pollen.

Floral Formula:

K(5)* C(5)↓ A2-4↓ G (2)↓Vx4

 

Nepeta macrantha Salvia transsylvanica
flowering branch
anther and stigmas stamen
flower floral diagram
stamens and style fertile thecae
lower lip
gynoecium filament and connective
 

Practical

Cornales

Ericales

Gentianales

Solanales

Lamiales