Euasterids 2

 

Euasterids 2

Epigynous higher asterids with one whorl of stamens, often pseudanthial.

 

 

 

Order

Species Number

Eudicots

Asterids

Euasterids 2

Aquifoliales

536

Eudicots

Asterids

Euasterids 2

Apiales

5489

Eudicots

Asterids

Euasterids 2

Dipsacales

1090

Eudicots

Asterids

Euasterids 2

Asterales

25790

Key to main orders

(Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

1. Flowers hypogynous, unisexual. ...Aquifoliales

1. Flowers epigynous. ...2

2. Flowers dialypetalous, umbelliflorous. Stylopodium. ...Apiales

2. Flowers gamopetalous. ...3

3. Anthers free; few. Corolla sometimes spurred. ...Dipsacales

3. Anthers fused, alternating with the petals. Corolla actino- or zygomorphic but not spurred. ...Asterales

Aquifoliales

Aquifoliales: Aquifoliaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees or shrubs, dioecious.

Leaves alternate, with deeply dentate margins..

Flowers 4-5 merous, small actinomorphic. Petals fused, stamens fused to the corolla tube and opposite the sepals. Ovary superior multilocular with sessile stigmas. Flowers associated with pistillodes and staminodes.

Fruit a drupe with several pyrenes.

 

Apiales

Apiales: Apiaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous, with resineferous secretory canals in the organs.

Leaves alternate, compound rarely entire. Petioles and stipules dilated sheathing at the node.

Inflorescence an umbel surrounded by an involucre.

Flowers 5-merous, actinomorphic. Petals and stamens free. Flower epigynous. Ovary inferior with two free styles swollen at the base with the nectary disc and forming the stylopodium.

Fruit a schizocarp of two flattened mericarps. Mericarps ornamented with more or less marked ribs, remaining attached at maturity by the carpophore.

 

Pyrénées
    Chile

Bupleurum ranunculoides

Eryngium bourgati Eryngium bourgati Azorella lycopoides
 
Bolax gummifera Bolax gummifera and Azorella Mulinum spinosum Mulinum spinosum
Eryngium paniculatum Eryngium paniculatum Pozoa coriacea Pozoa coriacea
Kyrgyztsan
Bupleurum exaltatum Bupleurum exaltatum Eryngium macrocalyx Eryngium macrocalyx
Ferula penninervis Ferula penninervis Hymenolaena pimpinellifolia Hymenolaena pimpinellifolia
      New Zealand
Oedibasis apiculata Prangos pabularia Prangos pabularia Aciphylla aurea
Aciphylla crenulata Aciphylla hectorii Aciphylla hectorii Aciphylla monroi
Aciphylla simplex Aciphylla simplex Anisotome pilifera Lignocarpa carnulosa
 
Lignocarpa carnulosa Anisotome imbricata Anisotome imbricata  

 

Apiales: Araliaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees, with resineferous secretory canals in the organs.

Leaves often very large, alternate, variously compound. Stipules and stipular sheath around the petiole.

Inflorescence generally an umbel, sometimes spike or bundle of spikes.

Flowers 5-merous, actinomorphic. Petals and stamens free but petals sometimes united in a deciduous calyptra. Flower epigynous. Ovary inferior multilocular with a stylopodium at the top. Placentation axile, one ovule per locule.

Fruit a drupe, sometimes a berry or a schizocarp.

 

New Zealand
Pseudopanax colensoi Pseudopanax colensoi Pseudopanax crassifolius Pseudopanax crassifolius
Schefflera digitata Schefflera digitata Raukaua anomalus Raukaua anomalus

 

Dipsacales

Dipsacales: Caprifoliaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous, shrubs or small trees.

Leaves opposite, simple.

Flowers 4-5 merous, zygomorphic and epigynous. Petals fused. Stamens fused to the corolla tube. Sepals united, sometimes also presence of an epicalyx.

Fruit a berry, drupe or achene sometimes crowned with a pappus.

 



Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera caerulea L.

corolla mouth corolla mouth

anthers and stigma anthers and stigma

paired flowers paired flowers

ovaries with bract removed ovaries with bract removed

cross section of the ovary cross section of the ovary

ovary with bract detached ovary with bract detached

berries berries

bracts and bracteoles bracts and bracteoles

nectary nectary petioles petioles

flowering branch

flowers

berries
berries
Chile
    Pyrénées

Valeriana sp.

Valeriana sp. Valeriana sp. Lonicera etrusca
Kyrgyzstan
Scabiosa alpestris Scabiosa songarica Scabiosa songarica Scabiosa micrantha

Asterales

Asterales: Campanulaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous rarely shrubs. Presence of latex.

Leaves alternate simple.

Flowers 5-merous, actino to zygomorphic. Petals fused with often a campanulate corolla. Stamens inserted at the base of the ovary and opposite the sepals. Ovary inferior with conspicuous nectary disc. Filaments sometimes dilated at base or coalescent and forming a tube. Ovary inferior tri to pentalocular. Stigmas often trifid.

Fruit a loculicidal or poricidal capsule sometimes a berry.

 

Pyrénées

Campanula macrorhiza

Campanula trachelium Campanula speciosa Campanula speciosa
Madeira
Musschia wollastonii Musschia aurea Musschia aurea Musschia aurea
  Chile    
Trachelium caeruleum Pratia Lobelia excelsa Lobelia polyphlla
New Zealand      
Pratia angulata Pratia angulata Pratia angulata Wahlenbergia albomarginata

 

Asterales: Asteraceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Erect or climbing herbaceous plants, sometimes with white latex.

Leaves alternate (sometimes opposite) often in basal rosettes.

Inflorescence a capitulum, with flat, convex or concave receptacle and surrounded by an involucre of bracts (phyllaries)

  • Discoid capitula: composed of actinomorphic, tubular florets with 5 corolla lobes (disc florets)
  • Ligulate capitula: composed only of zygomorphic florets, ligules with 5 lobes (ligulate florets)
  • Radiate capitula: composed of zygomorphic florets on the periphery, ligules with 3 lobes. Disc florets in the centre.
  • Labiate capitula: composed only of bilabiate zygomorphic flowers with 5 corolla lobes (Mutisia).

Flowers 5-merous. Petals fused, corolla tubular actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Flowers epigynous. Calyx absent or reduced and developing after fertilization (pappus). Stamens fused to the corolla tube, anthers fused around the style. Ovary inferior unlocular. Styles 2, associated with hairs and papillae acting in the plunger pollination.

Fruit an achene crown by a pappus (cypsela).

Pyrénées

Antennaria dioica

Antennaria dioica Antennaria dioica Carlina vulgaris
Carlina vulgaris Centaurea scabiosa Scolymus hispanicus Aster aragonensis
Echinops ritro Carlina corymbosa Carlina corymbosa Onopordon acanthium
Onopordon acanthium Carduncellus mitissimus Carduus carlinoides Carduus carlinoides
Catananche caerulea Catananche caerulea Cicerbita plumieri Carlina acaulis
Homogyne alpina Homogyne alpina Leuzea conifera Santolina chamaecyparissus
Madeira
Argyranthemum pinnatifidum Argyranthemum pinnatifidum Pericallis aurita Pericallis aurita
Sonchus fruticosus Sonchus fruticosus Sonchus pinnatus Helichrysum melaleucum
    Chile  
Calendula arvensis Calendula arvensis Perezia recurvata Perezia recurvata
 
Chilotrichum diffusum Chilotrichum diffusum Senecio Baccharis
Baccharis Leptinella Perezia Nassauvia
Nassauvia Nassauvia Chuquiraga Chuquiraga
  Nassauvia    
Chuquiraga Chuquiraga Senecio subdiscoides Senecio subdiscoides
Senecio smithii Senecio smithii Adenocaulon bicolor Dasyphyllum diacanthoides
Dasyphyllum diacanthoides Mutisia Mutisia Mutisia
Mutisia Mutisia Mutisia Mutisia
Madagascar     Kyrgyztsan
    Vernonia Centaurea turkestanica
 
Centaurea turkestanica Echinops nanus Inula grandis Erigeron allochrous
Lactuca orientalis Lactuca orientalis Leontopodium ochroleucum Ligularia alpigena
      New Zealand
Raoulia eximia
Saussurea sordida Schmalhausenia nidulans Xanthium spinosum  
Raoulia eximia
Raoulia eximia Raoulia glabra Raoulia hookeri Raoulia apicinigra

Leucogenes grandiceps Leucogenes grandiceps
Dolichoglottis lyallii Brachyglottis haastii Leucogenes grandiceps Leucogenes grandiceps
Leptinella atrata Leptinella atrata
Leptinella atrata Leptinella atrata Leptinella pectinata Craspedia lanata
Celmisia traversii Celmisia traversii Celmisia armstrongii Celmisia armstrongii
Celmisia armstrongii Celmisia mackaui Celmisia mackaui Celmisia mackaui

Bibliography

Judd, W.S.; Campbell, C.S.; Kellogg, E.A.; Stevens, P.F. 1999. 'Plants systematics, a phylogentic approach' Sinauer Associates Inc. Publ. , Sunderland, 464p.

Heywood, V.H. 1985 'Flowering Plants of the World' Equinox publ., Oxford, 336p.

Spichiger, R.; Savolainen, V.; Perret, M.; Figeat, M. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions Published by Science Publishers, 2004

Home page

Aquifoliales

Apiales

Dipsacales

Asterales

Bibliography

Practical

Aquifoliales

Apiales

Dipsacales

Asterales

 

 

 

     

Aquifoliales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Aquifoliales

Cardiopteridacaeae

43

Eudicots

Aquifoliales

Stemonuraceae

95

Eudicots

Aquifoliales

Phyllonomaceae

4

Eudicots

Aquifoliales

Helwingiaceae

3

Eudicots

Aquifoliales

405

AQUIFOLIACEAE Ilex verticillata

Questions: Observe the two types of flowers.

Ilex are dioecious species with male trees and female trees.

What is unusual in this species ?

The deciduous leaves and the 6-merous flowers

Floral Formula:

♀ K4-6* C(4-6)* A0 G (4-6)↓Vx4-6

♂ K4-6* [C(4-6)* A4-6↓] G (4-6)↓Vx4-6

 

female flower male flower
female flowers cross section of the ovary
Floral diagram

 

Apiales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Apiales

Pennantiaceae

4

Eudicots

Apiales

Torricelliaceae

10

Eudicots

Apiales

Griseliniaceae

6

Eudicots

Apiales

Pittosporaceae

200

Eudicots

Apiales

Araliaceae

1450

Eudicots

Apiales

Apiaceae

3780

APIACEAE Astrantia major

Questions: What type of inflorescence ?

An umbel with large conspicuous whorl of bracts. Sometimes the umbel can be compound.

Describe the structure of the gynoecium.

The gynoecium is made of two fused carpels that seperate later in fruit (schizocarp) in two mericarp joined by the commissure. The vittae are broad and membranous.

The androecium.

The stamens are incurved in bud and each anther is located within a fold of two adjacent petals. Later they are explosively released.

Why is this genus more 'primitive' ?

The stylopodium is not well developped, and the two mericarps are not joined by a forked carpophore. The calyx is also well developped.

Floral Formula:

K5* C(5)* A5↓ Ĝ(2)↓Vx2
inflorescence
flowering plant male and female flowers
mericarps fruit
male fower mericarp surface
Floral diagram cross section of the ovary

 

Dipsacales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Dipsacales

Adoxaceae

200

Eudicots

Dipsacales

890

CAPRIFOLIACEAE Centranthus ruber

Questions: Can you observe a evolution pathways in this species ?

There is a reduction in the number of stamens and carpels. Only one stamens is present and only one locule with one ovule is fertile. Also the calyx and possibly epicalyx are transformed into feathery dispersal hairs called pappus.

What kind of pollination ?

Insect pollinated. The corolla has a conspicuous and long nectary spur.

Floral Formula:

K∞pappus* [C(5)↓ A1↓] Ĝ(3)↓Vx1
ovary corolla
young fruit pappus
cross section of the ovary floral diagram

 

Asterales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Asterales

Rousseaceae

1

Eudicots

Asterales

Campanulaceae

2380

Eudicots

Asterales

Pentaphragmataceae

30

Eudicots

Asterales

Alseuosmiaceae

10

Eudicots

Asterales

Phellinaceae

12

Eudicots

Asterales

Argophyllaceae

21

Eudicots

Asterales

Stylidiaceae

245

Eudicots

Asterales

Menyanthaceae

58

Eudicots

Asterales

Goodeniaceae

440

Eudicots

Asterales

Calyceraceae

60

Eudicots

Asterales

23600

ASTERACEAE

Questions: Take the three sample and identify the capitulum type.

A has a radiate capitulum, but B and C have a ligulate capitulum.

Dissect each type of floret.

A has ray female floret with three lobed ligules as well as bisexual disc florets in the centre, B and C have bisexual ligulate florets with five lobed ligules.

Key out with Stace, C. 'New Flora of the British Isles'

A: Matricaria recurtita

B: Lapsana communis

C: Crepis capillaris

What are the main differences ?

A: Radiate capitulum

B: Ligulate capitulum, milky latex, cypsela without pappus

C: Ligulate capitulum, milky latex, cypsela with feathery pappus

Floral Formula:

K∞pappus* [C(5)*↓ A(5)↓] Ĝ(2)↓Va1
disc floret
ligulate floret
ray floret
A: B: C:
capitulum capitulum capitulum
ray and disc floret ligulate floret ligulate floret
cypsela cypsela cypsela
Disc floret
ray floret

 

 

Practical

Aquifoliales

Apiales

Dipsacales

Asterales