Eurosids 1

 

Rosids

Higher dialypetalous eudicots with sepals and petals, pentamerous flowers. Flowers with a bitegmic ovule (having two envelopes around the nucellus).

Plant ovules: Gymnosperm ovule on left, angiosperm ovule (inside ovary) on right (Source Wilkipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ovule

Nucellus: Diploid cell mass surrounding each young ovule in Angiosperms. One of these cells produces by meiosis the embryo sac or female gametophyte. The nucellus rapidly disappears or on the contrary persists as a reserve tissue the perisperm, in place of the endosperm.

Eurosids 1

Hypogynous, dialycarpous Rosids presenting often floral reductions and pseudanthial structures with leaves generally dentate,cleft or compound.

 

 

 

Order

Species Number

Eudicots

Rosids

Eurosid I

Fabales

20055

Eudicots

Rosids

Eurosid I

Rosales

7725

Eudicots

Rosids

Eurosid I

Cucurbitales

2295

Eudicots

Rosids

Eurosid I

Fagales

1877

Key to main orders

(Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

1. A single carpel, flower perfect, often zygomorphous and papillionaceate. Leaves compound. ...Fabales

1. Several carpels or single ovary. Often floral reductions ...2

2. Flowers epigynous, unisexual

3. Flowers with one row or without perianth. Trees. Pseudanths only. ...Fagales

3. Flowers with sepals and petals. Herbaceous species. Euanth. ...Cucurbitales

2. Flowers hypogynous, bi- or unisexual. ...Rosales

Rosales

Conventional sub-families not confirmed by molecular analysis. Key to the conventional sub-families.

1. Ovary superior ...2

2. Numerous uniovulate carpels producing drupeoles or achenes: Agrimonia, Alchemilla, Potentilla, Rosa, Rubus, Sanguisorba. ...Rosoideae

2. One to five carpels ...3

3. A single uniovulate carpel producing a drupe. Flower generally epigynous: Prunus. ...Prunoideae

3. One to five carpels containing numerous ovules producing follicles. Flower perigynous: Aruncus, Spiraea ...Spiraeoideae

1. Ovary inferior. One to five united carpels producing an 'apple': Amelanchier, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Cydonia, Eriobotrya, Malus, Mespilus, Sorbus. ...Maloideae

Rosales: Rosaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees, shrubs or trees.

Leaves alternate, simple or compound. Stipules.

Flowers 5-merous, stamens and carpels 1 to many. Flowers mostly hypogynous but also peri to epigynous. Carpels usually free. Hypanthium conspicuous.

Fruit variable, achenetum, drupetum, follicetum, drupetum, pomes...

Family 'by progression' showing various evolutionary tendencies as well as a wide morphological variability.

Plate 1

 

Rosales: Rosaceae(Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

 

 

 

 

Plate 2

 

Pyrénées

Geum rivale (Rosoideae)

Geum rivale (Rosoideae)

Rosa glauca (Rosoideae) Rosa glauca (Rosoideae)
  Kyrgyzstan    
Aruncus dioïcus (Spiraeoideae) Crataegus altaica(Maloideae) Crataegus altaica(Maloideae) Sibbaldia olgae (Rosoideae)

Prunus mahaleb(Prunoideae)

Rubus saxatilis (Rosoideae)

Rubus saxatilis (Rosoideae)

Prunus armeniaca(Prunoideae)

Prunus armeniaca(Prunoideae)

Prunus pseudoprostrata(Prunoideae)

Prunus petunnikowii(Prunoideae)

Prunus petunnikowii(Prunoideae)
Chile    
Geum magellanicum (Rosoideae) Geum magellanicum (Rosoideae) Rubus geoides (Rosoideae) Acaena ovalifolia (Rosoideae)

New Zealand

Acaena caesiiglauca (Rosoideae) Acaena microphylla (Rosoideae) Acaena microphylla (Rosoideae) Geum pusillum (Rosoideae)

 

Rosales: Rhamnaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees, shrubs sometimes thorny.

Leaves alternate, simple sometimes with palmate venation at the base and scalariform secondary veins. Stipules sometimes modified into thorns.

Flowers 4-5 merous, carpels 2-3 with conspicuous nectary disc. Stamens opposite the petals. Petals often valvular and enclosing the anthers at anthesis.

Fruit often drupes or schizocarp.

Pyrénées
  Kyrgyzstan  

Frangula alnus

Frangula alnus

Ziziphus zizyphus Ziziphus zizyphus
Chile

Discaria chacaye
Discaria chacaye

Colletia ullicina

Colletia ullicina

 

Rosales: Ulmaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees sometimes thorny. Branches often zig-zag.

Leaves distichous, leaf blade often asymmetrical at base.

Inflorescence axillary glomerules.

Flowers with only sepals 4-9 sometimes unisexual with 2 fused carpels. Stamens opposite the sepals. Ovary with two clearly visible styles.

Fruit Samara.

Distinguished from Celtidicaeae by the fruit a samara not a drupe and not having milky latex.

 

Rosales: Moraceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees with milky latex. Laticifers.

Leaves alternate, simple with large terminal stipules caducous and leaving ring-like scars.

Inflorescence either on an axis thickened in the form of a club (Artrocarpus) or on a flat axis (Dorstenia) or within an urn (syconium in Ficus).

Flowers with only one whorl of perianth. Flowers unisexual. Male flowers with 4-5 stamens often recurved in bud and projecting pollen at anthesis, female flowers with 2 fused carpels

Fruit compound made of drupeoles or achenes.

Madagascar

antiaris toxicaria

antiaris toxicaria

ficus benghalensis

ficus benghalensis

ficus sp.

ficus sp.

ficus sp.

ficus sp.
   
ficus sp. ficus sp.    

 

Rosales: Urticaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous, monoecious, dioecious or polygamous. Presence of stinging hairs.

Inflorescence spiciform to glomerules.

Flowers small with one whorl of perianth, hypogynous 4-5 merous. Stamens opposite the sepals, curved within the flower bud and projecting the pollen at anthesis. Carpels 1, ovule solitary basal.

Fruit achene or drupe.

New Zealand

 

 
Urtica ferox

Urtica ferox

Urtica ferox  

Fagales

Fagales: Fagaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Monoecious trees or shrubs .

Leaves alternate simple with deciduous stipules.

Inflorescences in pendant catkins. Female with 1-7 flowers surrounded by an involucre of bracts.

Flowers small without perianth, epigynous and unisexual. Ovary inferior.

Fruit monospermous achenes with tough pericarp (Accorn) partly or completely enclosed in a group of three (Castanea) or two (Fagus) or indivudually (Quercus) in an envelope (Cupule) with thorns or scales.

Pyrénées
  New Zealand and Chile

Quercus coccifera

Quercus coccifera

Nothofagus solandrii Nothofagus solandrii
 
 
Nothofagus betuloides

Nothofagus betuloides

Nothofagus antarctica  

 

Fagales: Betulaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees.

Leaves alternate with dentate margins.

Inflorescence in pendant catkins. Female cyme of three flowers supported by a bract. Male cyme of three flowers supported by three bracts.

Flowers small without perianth, epigynous often with rudimentary calyx. Ovary inferior. Anthers bifid in Betula.

Fruit and achene or samara enveloped or not in an involucre formed by foliaceous bracts.

Kyrgyzstan
  Myricaceae in Madeira

Betula tianshanicus

Betula tianshanicus

Myrica faya Myrica faya

 

Cucurbitales

Cucrbitales: Cucurbitaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous trailing or climbing with tendrils placed at right angles with the stem leaf plane.

Flowers solitary 5-merous with sepals and petals, epigynous. Corolla gamopetalous, stamens alternating with the petals, ovary inferior. Flowers usually unisexual. Male flower anthers present complications (abortions and unions). Female flower stigmas often lobate, placentation parietal with placentas often protruding.

Fruit a berry or pepo. Explosive in Ecbalium elaterium

Madagascar

 

Xerosicyos

Xerosicyos

Xerosicyos  

 

Begoniaceae


Begoniaceae
Begonia microsperma Warb.

Sect. loasibegonia. Rhizomatous herb. Stem short with large stipules. Leaves distinctly bullate with red multicellular hairs on veins and at junction blade-petiole. Inflorescence 3-4 flowered, umbellate with small reddish bracts. Female flower and 2-3 male flowers. Female with 2 rounded orbicular yellow to orange tepals, stigmas 4, styles fused at the base, stigmas only once lobed. Ovary 4 locular with 1 placenta in each locule. Male flowers with 2 rounded tepals, yellow-orange, androecium zygomorphic with 30 anthers in 5-6 rows. Connective rounded at apex.

androecium androecium

androecium androecium

anthers anthers

style and stigmas style and stigmas

ovary ovary

cross section of the ovary cross section of the ovary

flowering plant

male and female flower

flowers
leaf adaxial side

 

Fabales

Key to subfamilies

1. Actinomorphic flowers, small, grouped in inflorescences. 10 stamens or more. ...Mimosoideae

1. Zygomorphic flowers. 10 stamens or fewer ...2

2. Vexillary aestivation. 10 monadelphous (fused stamen) or diadelphous (fused in two groups) stamens. ...Faboideae

2. Carenal aestivation. 10 stamens or fewer, free. ...Caesalpinioideae

Fabales: Fabaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees.

Leaves alternate compound generally pinnate.

Flowers 5 merous, zygomorphic. Petals with carenal aestivation. Stamens free ten at most. Ovary of a single carpel.

Fruit a legume (follicle dehiscing by two valves).

Fabales: Fabaceae: Mimosoideae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees or shrubs sometimes thorny.

Leaves alternate, compound bipinnate. Petiole thickened at the base (pulvinus). Phyllodes often present.

Inflorescence spike or spherical glomerules. The inflorescence is substituted for flowers and functions as an attractive part (pseudanthium)

Flowers small 5 merous, petals 10 to many, carpel 1. Petals with valvular aestivation. Filaments generally free very long and coloured.

Fruit a legume (follicle dehiscing by two valves).

 

Fabales: Fabaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous.

Leaves alternate, compound pinnate. Stipules and stipels present.

Flowers 5 merous, zygomorphic 'papilionate'. Upper petal is the banner, lateral ones the wings and the two lower one fused into the keel. Petals in vexillary aestivation. Stamens fused 10 or 9 fused and 1 free.

Fruit a legume (follicle dehiscing by two valves) sometimes explosive.

Pyrénées

Lotus alpinus Ononis spinosa Echinospartum horridum Echinospartum horridum
lathyrus sylvestris lathyrus sylvestris Lathyrus laevigatus Lathyrus laevigatus
Kyrgyzstan
  Sophora   Caragana

Astragalus lithophilus Astragalus lasiosemius Astragalus nivalis Astragalus sieversianus

Oxytropis talassica Onobrychis seravschanica Alhagi maurorum Medik. subsp. kirghisorum

Alhagi maurorum Medik. subsp. kirghisorum

Chile
Lathyrus magellanicus Adesmia boronioides Anarthrophyllum desideratum Anarthrophyllum desideratum
       
Madagascar      
Albizia gummifera Albizia gummifera Bauhinia grandidieri Caesalpinia bonduc
Chadsia grevei Chadsia grevei Clittoria Dalbergia bracteolata
Delonix Delonix Entada rheedei Entada rheedei
 
Entada rheedei Neoapaloxylon tuberosa  

 

Bibliography

Judd, W.S.; Campbell, C.S.; Kellogg, E.A.; Stevens, P.F. 1999. 'Plants systematics, a phylogentic approach' Sinauer Associates Inc. Publ. , Sunderland, 464p.

Heywood, V.H. 1985 'Flowering Plants of the World' Equinox publ., Oxford, 336p.

Spichiger, R.; Savolainen, V.; Perret, M.; Figeat, M. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions Published by Science Publishers, 2004

Home page

Key to main orders

Rosales

Fagales

Cucurbitales

Fabales

Lulú Rico presentation (pdf)

Bibliography

Practical

Rosales

Fagales

Cucurbitales

Fabales

 

     

Rosales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Rosales

2520

Eudicots

Rosales

Barbeyaceae

1

Eudicots

Rosales

Dirachmaceae

2

Eudicots

Rosales

Rhamnaceae

925

Eudicots

Rosales

Elaeagnaceae

45

Eudicots

Rosales

Ulmaceae

35

Eudicots

Rosales

Cannabaceae

170

Eudicots

Rosales

1125

Eudicots

Rosales

Urticaceae

2625

ROSACEAE Neillia sinensis
Geography: Sichuan Findspot: In Qingshiban Valley, SE side of Gongga Shan. Altitude: 2140 metres

Questions: What is the position of the ovary ?

A narrrow tubular hypanthium with many stamens on the top. Ovary superior, unilocular but pluriovulate.

Which subfamily ?

Spiraeoideae though the gynoecium is made of one carpel it is pluriovulate and the fruit is a follicle.

Floral Formula:

(K5* C5* A∞*) G 1 ↓Vm2-3

Flower and longitudinal section of the flower
flowering branch stipules

Floral diagram

 

ROSACEAE Rosa omeiensis

Geography:China, Sichuan, Kanding Co., Muge Hai Nature Reserve, 1.5 km from entrance. alt: 2912m

Questions: What is the position of the ovary ?

A large urceolate hypanthium containing many free carpels, each of their style protruding from the top. Ovary is superior and flower is perigynous.

Which subfamily ?

Rosoideae though the gynoecium can superficially look like it is inferior. The fruit a drupetum : fleshy hypanthium enclosing the achenes.

Floral Formula:

(K5* C5* A∞*) G ∞↓Vm1

flowering branch
carpel longitudinal section of the flower
stigmas hypanthium hypanthium section carpel
stigmas hypanthium longitudinal section of the flower carpel

Floral diagram

 

MORACEAE Broussonetia kazinoki
Geography: South Korea Findspot: Taechong Myon. Ongjin Gun. Kyong Gi Do.

Questions: Isolate male and female flower.

Plant is monoecious, male flowers are in a catkin, female are in a globular capitlum.

structure of the female capitulum ?

The perianth is tubular and encloses the ovary from which the stigmas protrude. Conical hairy bracts are also tightly enclosing the fowers.

How to qualify this fruit ?

It is a compound fruit. Each fruit is a berry with a single seed. The berry is held on stalk (gynophore) and protrudes from the fleshy accrescent corolla.

Floral Formula:

♀ P4* A0 G (2) Vb1
♂ P4* A4* G0

 

female capitulum perianth and gynoecium
female flowers and bracts ovary
Flower and longitudinal section of the flower
male flowering branch  
floral diagram male flower with released stamens
compound fruits

 

MORACEAE Ficus carica

Questions: Isolate male and female flower.

Plant is monoecious, male flowers are in inserted inside the syconium.

structure of the female flowers ?

The perianth is reduced to 4 lobes and the stigmas are bilobed and small. Most flowers have short styles.

Observe the maturation of the flowers.

The male flowers are still immature while the female flowers are opened. This is an example of protogyny.

What is a Fig ?

It is a compound fruit with achenes enclosed within a fleshy inflorescence receptacle.

Floral Formula:

♀ P4* A0 G (2) Vb1
♂ P4* A4* G0

longitudinal section of the syconium female flower
section of the syconium ostiole
female flower male flowers

♀:pistillate flower;:parastited flower; ♀:pollinated flower not parasited (spared); :immature staminate flower; ♂:staminate flower; :female wasp Blastophaga.

Ficus carica (caprifig) life cycle: there are four crops of figs one in each season: the profichi crop contains pistillate flowers that will be all parasited by the wasps, the mammoni in the summer will have some spared flowers producing seeds and the mammoni crop will give shelter for the wasp during the winter.

Fagales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Fagales

Nothofagaceae

35

Eudicots

Fagales

Fagaceae

670

Eudicots

Fagales

57

Eudicots

Fagales

Juglandaceae

50

Eudicots

Fagales

Rhoipteleaceae

1

Eudicots

Fagales

Ticodendraceae

1

Eudicots

Fagales

145

Eudicots

Fagales

Casuarinaceae

95

BETULACEAE Ostrya virginiana

Questions: What is the position of the ovary ?

The pistillate flower is inserted inside the inflated bract and has an inferior ovary (rudimentary calyx insterted at the top).

Identify the male inflorescence.

It is a catkin with trilobed bracts and many stamens per flower. The anthers are bifid.

Floral Formula:

 

♀ Bcupular K6r* C0 A0 Ĝ(2) Vb1

♂ B(2) K0* C0 A4 G0

  female catkin
perianth at the top of the ovary male catkin
bifid stamen
pistillate flower pistillate flower Leaf margin female flower

Floral diagram of the female catkin Floral diagram of the male catkin

 

MYRICACEAE Myrica pensylvanica
Geography: Virginia Findspot: Accomack County.

Questions: What is the position of the ovary ?

The ovary is secondarily inferior. (the ovary is invested by tissue from a meristem developing below the flower).

What type of fruit ?

The fruit is drupe covered with fleshy scale giving its appealing aspect.

Floral Formula:

♂ Bt 2 K0 C0 A4

♀ Bt2-4 K0 C0 A0 Ĝ(2)Vb1

Floral diagram of the female catkin

Floral diagram of the male catkin

flowering branch female flowers
section of the flower shwowing investing tissue paired female flowers
peltate scales on abaxial leaf surface female flower

fruiting branch of Myrica rubra or the chinese bayberry

Cucurbitales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Cucurbitales

Anisophylleaceae

34

Eudicots

Cucurbitales

Corynocarpaceae

6

Eudicots

Cucurbitales

Coriariaceae

5

Eudicots

Cucurbitales

960

Eudicots

Cucurbitales

Tetramelaceae

2

Eudicots

Cucurbitales

Datiscaceae

2

Eudicots

Cucurbitales

Begoniaceae

1401


Cucurbitaceae Bryonia dioica

Questions: What is the position of the ovary ?

The pistillate flower has an ovary below the perianth (seperated by a distinct neck) but the staminate flower is naked below the perianth. The ovary is inferior. The ovary is made of three carpels fused in parietal placentation.

Several unusual structures are present in this flower ?

5 hairy epicalyx scales on the female flower perainth and large white glands on the anthers. This could be possibly linked to pollination but this has not been studied.

Structure of the androecium ?

The androecium is made of three anthers. One with a single thecae and the others with two thecae. The thecae are twisted around the large connective and look similar to the stigmas of the female flowers.

Floral Formula:

♂ K5* C(5)* A3* G0

♀ K5* C(5)* A0 Ĝ(3)*Vp∞

Floral diagram

male flower female flower
corona scales cross section of the ovary
anther male flower
Floral diagram of male and female flowers

 

Fabales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Fagales

Quillajaceae

3

Eudicots

Fagales

19400

Eudicots

Fagales

Surianaceae

8

Eudicots

Fagales

Polygalaceae

940

Select fabaceae flowers and sellotape each floral organ down.

Banner; keel, wings, gynoecium and androecium

Caesalpinia decapetala Piptanthus nepalensis Sophora davidii
upper petal banner banner
lateral petals keel keel
lower petals wings wings

 

gynoecium gynoecium gynoecium
androecium androecium androecium

Identify the subfamily for each plant

Floral formulae: K(5) ↓ C3+(2)↓ A(9)+1↓ G1↓Vm

Caesalpinioideae Faboideae Faboideae
Floral diagram for Caesalpinioideae and Faboideae
 

Practical

Rosales

Fagales

Cucurbitales

Fabales