Eurosids 2

 

Rosids

Higher dialypetalous eudicots with sepals and petals, pentamerous flowers. Flowers with a bitegmic ovule (having two envelopes around the nucellus).

Eurosids 2

Hypogynous to peri-epigynous, gamocarpous Rosids with leaves simple and opposite to leaves compound or cleft.

 

 

 

Order

Species Number

Eudicots

Rosids

Eurosid 2

Geraniales

836

Eudicots

Rosids

Eurosid 2

Myrtales

11027

Eudicots

Rosids

Eurosid 2

Brassicales

4450

Eudicots

Rosids

Eurosid 2

Malvales

6005

Eudicots

Rosids

Eurosid 2

Sapindales

5670

Key to main orders

(Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

1. Placentation parietal, often tetramery. Presence of glucosinolate. ...Brassicales

1. Placentation axile, pentamery. Absence of glucosinolates. ...2

2. Non-disciferous. Stamens numerous, often united. Leaves palmatilobed or compound digitate. Twisted corolla aestivation. ...Malvales

2. Disc or glands. Stamens 10 or more, free or united only at the base. ...3

3. Hypogynous, leaves compound, palmate or pinnate. ...4

4. Trees or shrubs. Leaves compound, pinnate. Often capsule. ...Sapindales

4. Herbs or suffruticose. Leaves cleft or compound, palmate or pinnate. Often schizocarpic. ...Geraniales

3. Peri- or epigynous, leaves simple. ...Myrtales

Geraniales

Geraniales: Geraniaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous.

Leaves often compound and fragrant.

Flowers 5-merous with free petals. Stamens in two whorls the outer one opposite the petals. Extrastaminal nectariferous glands present, alternipetalous. Ovary superior with a long style.

Fruit a schizocarp terminated by a long beak with paraplacental dehiscence, producing monspermous mericarps.

 

Discharge mechanism of Geranium schizocarps (Yeo, P.F. 'Hardy Geraniums' New Ed. 2001
Pyrénées
Kyrgyzstan   Madeira

Geranium cinereum

Geranium saxatile Geranium saxatile Geranium palmatum
 
 

Geranium palmatum

Geranium palmatum

Geranium palmatum  

Myrtales

Myrtales: Myrtaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Aromatic trees with bark peeling off.

Leaves opposite, simple and entire pitted with translucent glands.

Flowers 5-merous epigynous. Petals free or sometimes fused into a woody calyptra in the form of a cap. Androecium polystemonous. Nectariferous disc covering the multilocular inferior ovary.

Fruit berry or loculicidal capsule.

Chile

 

Luma apiculata

Luma apiculata

Luma apiculata  
New Zealand

Metrosideros umbellata

Metrosideros umbellata

Metrosideros fulgens

Metrosideros perforata

 

Myrtales: Lythraceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees to herbaceous.

Leaves opposite, simple, entire.

Flowers 4-8-merous, hypogynous sometimes zygomorphic. Petals free often crumpled in the bud. Stamens inserted in the hypanthium, filaments of unequal lenght. Ovary superior to inferior, carpels 2.

Fruit a capsule sometimes berry

 

Chile
  New Zealand Madagascar

Fuchsia magellanica (Onagraceae)

Fuchsia magellanica (Onagraceae)

Epilobium crassum (Onagraceae) koehneria madagascariensis (Lythraceae)
 

Poivrea grandidieri (Combretaceae) Sonneratia alba (Lythraceae) Sonneratia alba (Lythraceae) woodfordia fruticosa (Lythraceae)

Myrtales Characters

  Flowers Androecium Leaves
Lythraceae Hypogynous androecium polymerous not pitted
Myrtaceae Epigynous androecium polymerous pitted
Melastomataceae Epigynous androecium dimerous with appendages not pitted, parallel venation
Combretaceae Epigynous androecium dimerous not pitted

Brassicales

Brassicales: Brassicaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous producing mustard oil (Glucosinate)

Leaves alternate.

Flowers tetramerous. Androecium tetradynamous or polystemonous. Petals in a 'cross'. Ovary superior od two fused carpels unilocular but divided by a false septum (replum) borne sometimes on a gynophore or androgynophore. Placentation parietal.

Fruit a siliqua (elongated capsule) or silicula (short capsule). Dehiscence by two valves (septifragal) sometimes berry.

 

Pyrénées Kyrgyzstan    
Sesamoïdes pygmaea (Resedaceae)   Christolea crassifolia Smelovskia asplenifolia

 

Smelovskia asplenifolia

Chorispora bungeana Chorispora bungeana  
Madagascar
 
Crateva Crateva Crateva  

Malvales

1. Flowers with sepals and petals, hermaphrodite, tetra- or pentamerous. ...2

2. Petals having gibbosity at the base and terminated by a spathulate apex. Filaments fused in a tube around the ovary, causing the alternation of five anthers having two thecae with five staminodes opposite the sepals. Leaves simple. Small pantropical trees: Theobroma (cocoa). ...Byttnerioideae

2. Petals normal. ...3

3. Stamens barely fused at the base. Some are trees of Northern hemisphere: Tilia (Lime tree). ...Tilioideae

3. Filaments united in a column. Epicalyx. Corolla with twisted aestivation. ...4

4. Leaves compound digitate. Often very large pantropical trees: Adansonia (boabab), Bombax and Ceiba (Kapok), Chorisia. ...Bombacoideae

4. Leaves simple cleft. Cosmopolitan herbaceous plants or shrubs: Malva (mallow), Althaea (hollyhock), Hibiscus, Gossypium (cotton). ...Malvoideae

1. Flowers with only one whorl of perianth, often unisexual and trimerous. Stamens fused in a column. Leaves simple or digitate. Pantropical trees: Cola, Pterygota, Sterculia. ...Sterculioideae

Malvales: Malvaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees, Shrubs or Herbaceous. Sometimes bottle trunks and with large buttress roots. Indumentum often of stellate hairs.

Leaves often palmately lobed, alternate.

Flowers various, pentamerous, polystemonous. Stamens often fused in a column. Calyx often with an epicalyx. Anthers often unilocular.

Fruits a loculicidal capsule or schizocarp separating into mericarps. Seeds with cotton-like outer integument.

 

Malvales: Malvaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

 

 

 

Plate 2

Malvales: Malvaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

 

 

 

 

Plate 3

Pyrénées

althaea hirsuta (Malvoideae)

althaea hirsuta (Malvoideae)

Helianthemum nummularium (Cistaceae) Fumana procumbens (Cistaceae)
Kyrgyzstan   New Zealand
daphne cneorum(Thymeleaceae)

Alcea nudiflora(Malvoideae)

Alcea nudiflora(Malvoideae Hoheria angustifolia(Malvoideae)

Hoheria angustifolia(Malvoideae)

Hoheria angustifolia(Malvoideae)

Hoheria glabrata (Malvoideae) Hoheria glabrata (Malvoideae)
Plagianthus divaricatus (Malvoideae) Kelleria croizati (Thymeleaceae) Kelleria croizati (Thymeleaceae)

Pentachondra pumila (Thymeleaceae)

  Burkina-Faso    
Pentachondra pumila (Thymeleaceae) Cochlospermum tinctorium (Bixaceae) Cochlospermum tinctorium (Bixaceae) hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvoideae)
hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvoideae) Sterculia (Sterculioideae) Sterculia (Sterculioideae) Bombax costatum (Bombacoideae
  Madagascar  
Bombax costatum (Bombacoideae Bombax costatum (Bombacoideae) Adansonia grandidieri (Bombacoideae) Adansonia grandidieri (Bombacoideae)
Adansonia grandidieri (Bombacoideae) Adansonia grandidieri (Bombacoideae) Adansonia (Bombacoideae Dombeya (Sterculioideae)
Grewia (Tilioideae) Perrierophytum (Malvoideae) Hildegardia erythrosiphon (Sterculioideae) Hildegardia erythrosiphon (Sterculioideae)
 
Hildegardia erythrosiphon (Sterculioideae) Sterculia (Sterculioideae) Sterculia (Sterculioideae)  

Sapindales

Sapindales: Sapindaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees or shrubs.

Leaves alternate often grouped in bunches at the tips of branches. Compound pinnate (opposite and simple palmate in Acer)

Flowers 4-5-merous. Hypogynous. Petals free often with inner appendages. Nectary disc extrastaminal or unilateral. Stamens 8.

Fruits mostly trigonous capsule and samara with a single seed per mericarp.

 

 

 

Sapindales: Rutaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees aromatic. Thorns.

Leaves compound imparipinnate, with translucent pits. Rachis sometimes winged.

Flowers 4-5 merous. Nectary disc intrastaminal. Ovary superior with carpels often free in upper part.

Fruits follicles, schizocarps, samara, capsule or hesperidium (berry composed of multicellular juice-filled hairs)

 

Pyrénées
Kyrgyzstan   New Zealand

Ruta chalepensis

Haplophyllum acutifolium Haplophyllum acutifolium Melicope simplex

 

Sapindales: Meliaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees.

Leaves alternate grouped in bunches at the tips of branches, compound pari-or impari-pinnate.

Flowers 4-5 merous. Nectary disc intrastaminal. Filaments fused in a tube.

Fruits loculicidal or septicidal capsules. Seeds often winged.

Madagascar

Turraea sericea

Turraea sericea Turraea sericea

Sapindales Characters

  Ovary Androecium Nectary disc Leaves
Rutaceae dialycarpous free intrastaminal translucent pits
Meliaceae syncarpous fused intrastaminal without translucent pits
Sapindaceae syncarpous free, eight stamens extrastaminal without translucent pits
Burseraceae syncarpous, multilocular, locule biovulate free intrastaminal without translucent pits
Anacardiaceae syncarpous, ovary unilocular, uniovulate free intrastaminal without translucent pits

Bibliography

Judd, W.S.; Campbell, C.S.; Kellogg, E.A.; Stevens, P.F. 1999. 'Plants systematics, a phylogentic approach' Sinauer Associates Inc. Publ. , Sunderland, 464p.

Heywood, V.H. 1985 'Flowering Plants of the World' Equinox publ., Oxford, 336p.

Spichiger, R.; Savolainen, V.; Perret, M.; Figeat, M. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions Published by Science Publishers, 2004

Home page

Key to main orders

Geraniales

Myrtales

Brassicales

Malvales

Sapindales

Bibliography

Practical

Geraniales

Myrtales

Brassicales

Malvales

Sapindales

 

     

Geraniales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Geraniales

805

Eudicots

Geraniales

Melianthaceae

11

Eudicots

Geraniales

Francoaceae

2

Eudicots

Geraniales

Vivianiaceae

6

Eudicots

Geraniales

Ledocarpaceae

12



Geraniaceae
Pelargonium sidoides DC.

Notes:Checked with J.J.A. Van der Walt & P.J.Vorster 'Pelargoniums of Southern Africa'. Pelargonium section cortusina. Leaves rounded, velvety grey hairy. Stipules short and spreading. Inflorescence branched with umbels at each node. Umbels 6-7 flowered.Hypanthium to 20mm long, sepals recurved, petals dark purple. Pedicel very short. Fertile stamen 7, pollen orange.

Questions: Observe the hypanthium.

The hypanthium is long tubular and contains the nectar. The pedicel is very short and look superficially similar to the hypanthium.

Key out with with J.J.A. Van der Walt & P.J.Vorster 'Pelargoniums of Southern Africa'.

corolla corolla

ovary and stamens ovary and stamens

longitudinal section of the flower longitudinal section of the flower

longitudinal section of the hypanthium longitudinal section of the hypanthium

leaves and inflorescence

flowers
flowers

 

Brassicales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Brassicales

Akaniaceae

2

Eudicots

Brassicales

Tropaeolaceae

95

Eudicots

Brassicales

Moringaceae

12

Eudicots

Brassicales

Caricaceae

34

Eudicots

Brassicales

Setchellanthaceae

1

Eudicots

Brassicales

Limnanthaceae

1

Eudicots

Brassicales

Koeberliniaceae

2

Eudicots

Brassicales

Bataceae

2

Eudicots

Brassicales

Salvadoraceae

11

Eudicots

Brassicales

Emblingiaceae

1

Eudicots

Brassicales

Pentadiplandraceae

1

Eudicots

Brassicales

Resedaceae

75

Eudicots

Brassicales

4490

CRUCIFERAE Lunaria rediviva

Questions: Observe the androecium.

Six stamens: two short and four long. Tetradynamous stamens.

Compare the ovary and the fruit ?

The ovary is formed of two fused carpels in parietal placentation. The ovary is initially unilocular but a secondary false partition (the replum) is forming. The dehiscence of the capsule is septifragal (on each side of the placentas), the two valves drop leaving the replum and the seeds attached. A silique.

Floral Formula:

K4* C4* A4+2↓ G(2)↓Vp∞

Floral diagram

flower Flower with petals and sepals removed
gynoecium anthers and stigmas
fruits with replum

Myrtales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Myrtales

Combretaceae

500

Eudicots

Myrtales

656

Eudicots

Myrtales

620

Eudicots

Myrtales

4620

Eudicots

Myrtales

Vochysiaceae

190

Eudicots

Myrtales

Melastomataceae

5005

Eudicots

Myrtales

Crypteroniaceae

10

Eudicots

Myrtales

Alzateaceae

2

Eudicots

Myrtales

Penaeaceae

29

LYTHRACEAE Cuphea ignea & Cuphea hyssopifolia

Questions: Observe the flower and identify the hypanthium in the two species.

The hypanthium is very conspicuous and petaloid in both species but Cuphea hyssopifolia has large petals and they are missing in C. ignea.

identify the nectaries ? is this a common feature ?

The nectary is fomed of two spurs at the base of the ovary. It is surprisingly common to have two nectary spurs (Corydalis: at the filaments base; Aconitum: transformed petals; Viola: at the back of the anthers; Diascia: two petal spurs....)

Floral Formula:

(K5* C0-5* A∞↓) G(2)↓Vc10-11

 

flowering branch of Cuphea ignea Flower section
apex of hypanthium spur section with nectaries
flower of cuphea hyssopifolia 1965-75315 flower section

Floral diagram

 

ONAGRACEAE Fuchsia microphylla

Geography: Mexico Alt.2200m.

Questions: put captions.

hypanthium, petals, nectaries, ovary, stamens, stigmas, style, filament.

Compare the ovary with the previous one.

The ovary is formed of four fused carpels in axile placentation and it is inferior.

Identify the stigmas structure.

The stigmas become receptive by spreading appart and exposing the stigmatic surface. therefore the flower can be called androecious.

Floral Formula:

(K5* C5* A8↓)Ĝ(4)↓Vx∞
flowering branch Flower section
apex of hypanthium spur section with nectaries

Floral diagram

 

MYRTACEAE Callistemon pallidus

Questions: Which part of this flowers forms the most attractive part to the pollinators ?

The androecium replaces the petals to attract pollinators. The filaments are numerous and brigthly coloured.

Make some sections in the gynoecium.

The ovary is made of three carpels fused in axil placentation with many seeds. The ovary is inferior and the hypanthium is higher than the apex of the ovary.

Floral Formula:

(K5* C0* A∞*(3)↓Vx∞

 

longitudinal section of Callistemon flower Callistemon inflorescence
logitudinal section of the ovary cross section of the ovary flower

Floral diagram pellucid dots on leaves

Malvales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Malvales

Neuradaceae

10

Eudicots

Malvales

Thymelaeaceae

891

Eudicots

Malvales

Sphaerosepalaceae

18

Eudicots

Malvales

Bixaceae

21

Eudicots

Malvales

Cistaceae

175

Eudicots

Malvales

Sarcolaenaceae

60

Eudicots

Malvales

Dipterocarpaceae

680

Eudicots

Malvales

Cytinaceae

10

Eudicots

Malvales

Muntingiaceae

3

Eudicots

Malvales

4225


MALVACEAE Abutilon X hybridum

MALVACEAE Fremontodendron 'California Glory'

Questions: Observe the staminal column in each species.

In Abutilon there are many stamens fused in a long column around the style. In Fremontodendron there are only five stamens fused.

Compare the ovary both species.

In Abutilon there are 10 carpels fused in axil placentation with few ovules in each locule but the fruit is a schizocarp splitting into 10 mericarps. In Fremontodendron there are only five carpels and the fruit is a capsule.

Floral Formula:

K5* C0-5* A(5-∞)↓ G(5-10)↓Vx2-10

Floral diagram

flower of Abutilon X hybridum Flower of Fremontodendron 'California Glory'

staminal column section of the staminal column
section of the staminal column anther
cross section of the ovary
gynoecium and ovary stellate hairs

 

Sapindales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Eudicots

Sapindales

Biebersteiniaceae

5

Eudicots

Sapindales

Nitrariaceae

16

Eudicots

Sapindales

Kirkiaceae

8

Eudicots

Sapindales

Burseraceae

755

Eudicots

Sapindales

Anacardiaceae

873

Eudicots

Sapindales

1630

Eudicots

Sapindales

Simaroubaceae

110

Eudicots

Sapindales

Meliaceae

615

Eudicots

Sapindales

2070


SAPINDACEAE Acer tataricum

SAPINDACEAEAesculus indica

Questions: Observe the nectary disc.

Both species have an extrastaminal nectary disc.

Compare the ovary both species.

In Acer there are 2 carpels fused with ovule in each locule, the fruit is a schizocarp of two samara or a disamara. In Aesculus there are 3 fused carpels in axil placentation, the ovary is very small and placed on a gynophore but soon develops into a large spint capsule.

Floral Formula:

K5* C5* A10* G(2-3)↓Vx2-3

male flower of Acer tataricum Flower of Aesculus indica
female flower flower with petals and sepals removed and nectary disc

Floral diagram

 

RUTACEAE Ptelea trifoliata

Questions: Observe the nectary disc.

This species has an intrastaminal nectary disc.

How will the ovary transform into fruit ?

The fruit will be a winged fruit.

Floral Formula:

K5* C5* A5* G(2)↓Vx2

Keying out European Garden Flora

flower Flower
Inflorescence leaf glands
samara cross sectrion of the samara
Floral diagram

 

 

 

Practical

Geraniales

Myrtales

Brassicales

Malvales

Sapindales