Giles teaching Herbarium 19/11/1985

  Thalamiflorae   Monochlamydeae   Floridae
  Calyciflorae   Gymnospermae   Glumiferae
  Corolliflorae   Dictyogenae   Filices
Babington classification and evolution of classification

 

 

The Giles herbarium was collected between 1895-1896 most of the plants are common british native plants collected around Folkestone in the South of England. They have been laid out to show the characteristics of families and orders known at that time.

The Babington classification was used Babington, C.C. 'Manual of British Botany containing the flowering plants and Ferns arranged according to the natural orders'.

We decided to represent this herbarium first because it is beautiful but also because it shows how classification, latin names and also common names have changed overtime, and will carry on changing with increased knowledge.

Anemone nemorosa L. Wind Flower

Natural Order: RANUNCULACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular or irregular. Stamens indefinite (polyandrous); anthers adnate, opening lengthwise. Sepals 3-6 often petaloid. Petals 5 or more, rarely 0. Pistils usually many, of 1 seeded achenes, or many seeded follicles (apocarpous). Seeds erect or pendulous, albuminous. Herbs with alternate leaves (except Clematis).

Etymology: From rana a frog; many species are found in places frequented by frogs [Ranunculus]

Habitat: Wood near Folkestone 22/04/1896

Papaver rheas L. Corn Rose

Natural Order: Papaveraceae ; Division: Thalamiflorae ; Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Corolla of 4 petals. Sepals 2 deciduous. Stamens indefinite. Fruit syncarpous with parietal placentas. Seeds many, albuminous. Style 1 or stigmas sessile. Leaves alternate, exstipulate.

Etymology: From papa, pap; the juice of the poppy formerly used in children's food. [Papaver]

Habitat: Corn-field near Folkestone 12/06/1895

Fumaria officinalis L.Common Fumitory

Natural Order: FUMARIACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers irregular. Corolla of 4 parallel petals, one or both of teh two outer petals gibbous or spurred at the base. Sepals 2 minute. Stamens in two bundles of 3 each; lateral anther of each bundle 1-celled. Ovary free, 1 celled. Style filiform. Stigma with 2 or more points. Seeds albuminous.

Etymology: From fumus, smoke; alluding to the disagreeable smell of the plant [Fumaria]

Habitat: Cornfield near Folkestone 18/06/1896

Cardamine pratensis L. Lady's Smock

Natural Order: CRUCIFERAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers cruciform. Petals 4. Sepals 4, 2 lateral often larger. Stamens 6, tetradynamous; 2 shorter opposite the lateral sepals. Ovary free. Stigmas 2. Fruit a 2-celled and 2-valved capsule or pod, the valves opposite the shorter stamens. Seeds exalbuminous. Leaves alternate, exstipulate.

Etymology: From crux, a cross; referring to the arrangement of the 4 petals.

Habitat: Moist meadow near Folkestone 27/05/1896

Reseda lutea L. Wild mignionette

Natural Order: RESEDACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers irregular. Petals 4-8 entire or deeply cut. Sepals 4-8 persistent. Stamens indefinite. Ovary 1-celled of 2-6 connate carpels. Fruit usually a coriaceous capsule, open at the top. Stigmas sessile. Seeds many, reniform, exalbuminous. Leaves alternate, stipules glandular or 0.

Etymology: From resedo, to calm; from the supposed sedative qualities of some species [Reseda]

Habitat: Chalky Hills near Folkestone 14/07/1895

Helianthemum vulgare Gaert. Common Rock Rose

Natural Order: CISTACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 5 fugaceous. Sepals 3 equal, and 2 smaller external (sometimes wanting). Stamens indefinite. Ovary 1, 1 or many-celled. Style simple. Stigmas 3. Capsule 3-,5-, or 10- valved. Seeds with mealy or firm albumen. Leaves mostly opposite, entire; stipules small or 0.

Etymology: From Greek kiste a box or capsule; on account of the shape of the capsule. [Cistus]

Habitat: Chalky Hills near Folkestone 14/07/1895

Viola tricolor L. Pansy

Natural Order: VIOLACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers irregular. Petals 5; lower spurred. Sepals 5 persistent. Stamens 5; anthers on inner side of dilated filaments which slightly cohere. Ovary 1 celled. Style 1 with a hooded stigma. Fruit a 3 valved capsule, many seeded. Seeds small, albuminous. Leaves alternate, stipulate.

Etymology: From viola, the Latin name of the flowers [Viola]

Habitat: Corn-field near Folkestone 22/03/1896

Drosera rotundifloia L. Round-leaved Sundew

Natural Order: DROSERACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 5. Sepals 5. Stamens 5. Ovary free 1-celled. Styles 3 or 5. Capsules 3-5 valved, many seeded. Seeds small, albuminous. Leaves radical and rosulate, or cauline and alternate, bearing long hairs tipped with glands and with a circinate vernation.

Etymology: From drosera, dewy; in allusion to the dew-like appearance of the glands [Drosera]

Habitat: Bog New Forest 5/08/1895

Polygala vulgaris L. Common Milkwort

Natural Order: POLYGALACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers irregular. Petals usually 3, 1 anterior and larger than the rest. Sepals 5, irregular, 2 interior larger petaloid. Stamens 8, in 2 equal opposite bundles. Anthers 1 celled, opening by a pore at their apex. Ovary syncarpous with axile placentas, 2-celled, ovules 1 in each cell. Seeds pendulous, usually with an aril. Leaves alternate or subopposite, exstipulate.

Etymology: From poly, much and gala milk; being supposed to increase the milk in cows [Polygala]

Habitat: Pastures near Folkestone 26/06/1895

Silene inflata Sm. White Bottle

Natural Order: CARYOPHYLLACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 5 or 4 clawed. Sepals 5 or 4. Stamens 8 or 10. Anthers opening longitudinally. Ovary one, often stalked. Stigmas 2-5 sessile, filiform. Capsules syncarpous, 1 celled; placenta free central. Seed many, small, albuminous. Leaves opposite usually connate at base; stipules 0 or small and scarious.

Etymology: From karyon, a nut, and phyllon, a leaf; referring to the appearance of teh flower buds [Dainthus caryophyllus]

Habitat: Field border near Folkestone 18/06/1895

Malva moschata L. Musk Mallow

Natural Order: MALVACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 5 adnate at the base to the staminal column, twisted in bud. Sepals 5. Stamens many, connected at the base into a tube (monadelphous); anthers 1-celled, reniflorm, bursting transversely. Ovary syncarpous of several carpels round a common axis. Carpels 1-seeded. Leaves alternate, with deciduous stipules.

Etymology: From malacho, to soften; in allusion to its emollient properties. [Malva]

Habitat: Hedge New Forest 31/07/1895

Hypericum androsaemum L. Tutsan.

Natural Order: HYPERICACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 5 twisted in bud. Sepals 5 distinct or cohering. Stamens many in 3 or 4 bundles. Anthers versatile 2-celled. Styles 3 or 5. Ovary syncarpous, more or less completely 3-5 celled, cells many ovuled. Fruit a dry or fleshy capsule. Seeds small, many, exalbuminous. Leaves opposite with pellucid dots, exstipulate.

Etymology: From hypericum, the Greek name of the plant. [Hypericum]

Habitat: Hedge New Forest 29/07/1895

Acer campestre L. Maple

Natural Order: ACERACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 5-, rarely 5-9-parted, inserted round an hypogynous disk. Calyx 5-, rarely 5-9 parted. Stamens generally 8, insterted on disk. Ovary 2-lobed, 2-celled. Style 1. Stigmas 2. Fruit winged, seperating into two indehiscent nuts (samaras) each with 1 cell and 1-2 seeds. Leaves opposite, exstipulate.

Etymology: From acer, hard or sharp; the wood was used for making spikes and lances. [Acer]

Habitat: Hedge near Lyminge 29/05/1896

Geranium robertianum L. Herb Robert

Natural Order: GERANIACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 5, clawed, twisted in bud. Sepals 5. Stamens 10, monadelphous (5 sterile in Erodium). Fruit of 5 carpels cohering together with their styles round a long beaked persistent axis; from which they ultimately separate with elasticity. Seed solitary in the carpels, without albumen. Leaves with stipules.

Etymology: From geranos, a crane; in allusion to the crane-like beak terminating the carpels [Geranium]

Habitat: Hedge-bank near Folkestone 20/06/1895

Oxalis acetosella L. Wood Sorrel

Natural Order: OXALIDACEAE ; Division: Thalamiflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 5, twisted in the bud. Sepals 5 equal, persistent. Stamens 10 more or less monadelphous, those opposite to the petals longer than the others. Anthers free, 2-celled. OVary 5-celled. Styles 5. Capsules 5-valved. Seeds several, with an elastic coat. Leaves usually ternate, pendulous at night.

Etymology: From oxys, acid; the leaves have an acid taste. [Oxalis]

Habitat: Shady bank near Folkestone 22/04/1896

Euonymus europaeus L.Spindle tree

Natural Order: CELASTRACEAE ; Division: Calyciflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 4-5. Sepals 4-5. Stamens 4-5 alternating with the petals, inserted in the disk, perigynous. Ovary 3-5 celled, sunk into the disk; cells 1-2 seeded; ovules erect. Seed usually arillate. Stipules minute, deciduous.

Etymology: From Kelastros, the old Greek name given by Theophrastus to the Privet [Celastrus]

Habitat: Wood near Folkestone 30/05/1896

Genista anglica L.Needle Whin

Natural Order: LEGUMINOSAE ; Division: Calyciflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers irregular, papilionaceous. Petals 5, odd one superior and external. Calyx inferior. Sepals 5, odd one inferior. Stamens 10, monadelphous or diadelphous (10 stamens in one bundle or in two bundles of 9 and 1). perigynous. Ovary free, 1 celled. Fruit a legume; placenta on the upper suture. Leaves usually alternate compound and stipulate.

Etymology: From legumen, any leguminous plant.

Habitat: Heath New Forest 29/07/1895

Spiraea ulmaria L.Meadowsweet

Natural Order: ROSACEAE ; Division: Calyciflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals usually 5, odd petal inferior. Calyx 4-5 parted, add lobe superior. Stamens usually indefinite, perigynous, incurved in bud. Ovary of 1 or more, free or connate 1 - or more ovuled carpels. Fruit various, a pome, or of one or many drupes, achenes, or follicles, rarely a berry or capsule. Leaves usually alternate, stipulate.

Etymology: Rosa, the old Latin name is from the Greek rhodon, a rose. [Rosa]

Habitat: Meadow near Folkestone 23/06/1895

Lythrum salicaria L. Purple Loosetrife

Natural Order: LYTHRACEAE ; Division: Calicflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 3-6 rarley 0, crumpled in bud. Calyx inferior, tubular, persistent, 3-6 lobed, with as many alternating projecting teeth. Stamens insterted in the tube of the calyx, below the petals and equalling them or 2, 3 or 4 times as many. Ovary free, syncarpous, 2-4 celled, ovules many. Style 1. Seeds exalbuminous.

Etymology: From the Greek lythron, blood; from the colour of the flowers [Lythrum]

Habitat: Ditch-bank New Forest 29/07/1895

Tamarix anglica (Webb) Tamarisk

Natural Order: TAMARICACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Petals 4-5. Sepals 4-5. Stamens equal or twice as many as the petals, inserted on the edge of hypogynous ring. Ovary free, syncarpous. Styles 3. Capsules 1-celled, 3-valved, many seeded, loculicidal. Seeds erect, usually more or less comose. Leaves minute, often scale like, amplexicaul, exstipulate.

Etymology: From Tamaris (now Tambro), a river of Spain where Tamarisk abounds [Tamarix]

Habitat: Sea Shore Folkestone 31/105/1895

Epilobium hirsutum L.Great Willow Herb

Natural Order: ONAGRACEAE ; Division: Calyciflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers usually regular. Petals 2-4 twisted in bud. Calyx superior, tubular, 2-4 lobed. Stamens 2,4, or 8 epigynous. Ovary of several cells, with a central placenta. Style 1, filiform, stigma capitate or lobed. Fruit a berry or capsule with 4 cells. Seeds 1 or more in each cell, smooth, papillose or hairy, exalbuminous. LEaves opposite or alternate.

Etymology: From onager, the wild ass [Onagra now reduced to Oenothera]

Habitat: Old wall. Barham 03/11/1895

Bryonia dioica L.Red Bryony

Natural Order: CUCURBITACEAE ; Division: Calyciflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular, dioecious. Corolla 5 cleft. Calyx 5-toothed. Stamens 5, resembling 3 by cohesion. Anthers sinuous. Ovary inferior, 3-5 celled, many ovuled; placentas parietal. Style short, stigmas lobed. Fruit a berry many seeded, filled with pulp. Seed flat, exalbuminous. Leaves alternate, exstipulate. Climbing by tendrils.

Etymology: From Cucumis; the cucumber and orbis a globe; in allusion to the shape of the fruit [Cucurbita]

Habitat: Hedge nera Folkestone 22/06/1895

Cotyledon umbilicus L.Navelwort

Natural Order: CRASSULACEAE ; Division: Calyciflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular, Petals 5, rarely 3 or 4, or 10-12. Sepals the same number. Stamens as many or twice as petals. Hypogynous scale 1 at the base of each carpel. Carpels the same number as the petals, free or sligthly connected, 1 celled. Fruit of several, many seeded follicles. Seeds oblong, minute. Leaves succulent and exstipulate.

Etymology: From crassus, thick; in reference to the fleshy leaves and stems [Crassula]

Habitat: Hedgebank, New Forest 10/08/1895

Hydrocotyle vulgaris L.Pennywort

Natural Order: UMBELLIFERAE ; Division: Calyciflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers usually regular, umbellate. Petals 5, epigynous, usually inflexed at the point. Calyx superior, 5-toothed or entire. Stamens 5, epigynous incurved in bud. Ovary 2-celled, crowned with a double fleshy disk (stylopode), ovules 1 in each cell. Styles 2. Fruit of 2 carpels (mericarps) adhering by their face (commissure) to a common axis (carpophore). Leaves alternate.

Etymology: From Latin umbella, a sun-shade; in reference to the inflorescence

Habitat: Bog New Forest 11/08/1895

Hedera helix L.Ivy

Natural Order: HEDERACEAE ; Division: Calyciflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular, umbellate. Petals 5, often coriaceous, very deciduous. Calyx superior 4-5 toothed. Stamens 5, anthers didymous, versatile. Ovary 2 or more celled (Hedera 5). Styles as many as the cells. Fruit succulent or dry, of several cells each with 1 pendulous seed (in our Hedera, a 5 celled, 5 seeded succulent berry). Leaves alternate.

Etymology: Hedera was the old latin name for the Ivy, used by Virgil and Pliny [Hedera]

Habitat: Old wall. Barham 03/11/1895

Cornus sanguinea L Dog-wood

Natural Order: CORNACEAE ; Division: Calyciflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular, subumbellate. Petals 4, epigynous. Calyx superior, 4-lobed, adnate to the ovary. Stamens 4, free, epigynous. Ovary 3-celled. Style filiform. Fruit a drupe, 2-seeded. Seeds pendulous, solitary, albuminous. Leaves, exstipulate. Flowers usually small.

Etymology: From cornu, horn; the wood being thought as hard and durable as horn [Cornus]

Habitat: Thickets near Folkestone 09/08/1895

Viscum album L.Mistletoe

Natural Order: LORANTHACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Corolla of 4-8 more or less united petals. Calyx adnate to the ovary, with two bracts at its base. Stamens as many as and opposite to the petals, epipetalous, anthers sometimes adnate to the petals. Ovary 1, inferior, 1-celled with 1 pendulous ovule. Style filiform or 0. Stigma capitate. Fruit a 1 seeded, succulent berry. Leaves entire, coriaceous, exstipulate.

Etymology: From loron, a thong; and anthos, a flower; in allusion to the long linear form of the petals [Loaranthus]

Habitat: Parasitical on apple New Forest 03/08/1895

Adoxa moschatellina L.Moschatel

Natural Order: CAPRIFOLIACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular or not. Corolla 4-5 cleft. Calyx superior, adnate to the ovary, usually with bracts at the base; limb 4-5 lobes. Stamens 4-10, epipetalous and alternate with the lobes. Ovary inferior 3-5 celled. Stigmas 1-3. Fruit not bursting, 1 or many-celled, 1 or many seeded usually fleshy. Leaves opposite usually exstipulate.

Etymology: From Caper, a goat and folium a leaf; in poetic allusion to the climbing habits of some plants [Caprifolium]

Habitat: Damp Bank near Folkestone 07/04/1896

Galium aparine L.Goose-grass

Natural Order: RUBIACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Corolla rotate, bell, - or funnel shaped, 4-6 lobed. Calyx superior, entire or lobed. Stamens 4-5, epipetalous, alternate with corolla lobes. Ovary 1-2 celled, with solitary erect ovules. Style 1, often bifid. Stigmas 2. Fruit a didymous indehiscent pericarp. Stems square. Leaves whorled, exstipulate. Seeds albuminous. Flowers small.

Etymology: From ruber, red; in allusion to the colour of the roots [Rubia]

Habitat: Hedge near Folkestone 31/05/1896

Valeriana officinalis L.Great Valerian

Natural Order: VALERIANACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers iregular. Corolla tubular, 3-5 lobed unequal often spurred or gibbous at the base. Calyx superior; limb various, toothed, or inconspicuous, or involute and ultimately resembling a pappus. Stamens 1-3, insterted in the tube, free. Ovary with 1 perfect fertile cell and often 2 abortive cells; ovule solitary, pendulous. Fruit dry. Leaves opposite, exstipulate.

Etymology: From valere, to be health; on account of the medicinal qualities of V.officinalis [Valeriana]

Habitat: Moist wood New Forest 01/08/1895

Tussilago farfara L.Coltsfoot

Natural Order: COMPOSITAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers in involucrate heads. Corolla tubular or ligulate; both kinds in the same head or only one of them. Calyx superior; limb inconspicuous or forming a toothed bristly or feathery pappus. Stamens 5. Anthers cohering as a tube round style, often tailed. Ovary 1-celled; ovule 1, erect; style slender 2-fid. Fruit dry, indehiscent. Seeds exalbuminous.

Etymology: From Latin composa, to put or lay together, refering to the arrangement of the flowers.

Habitat: Clay-pit border near Folkestone 07/04

Campanula tracheliume L.Nettle-leaves Bell flower

Natural Order: CAMPANULACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular or irregular. Corolla gamopetalous 5 lobed, epigynous. Calyx superior, 5 cleft or entire. Stamens 5, alternate with lobes of corolla, inserted with but not adhering to the corolla. Anthers free or connate. Fruit dry, capsular, opening by lateral fissures or valves at the top, many seeded. Seeds minute, albuminous. Leaves alternate.

Etymology: A diminutive of campana, a bell; in reference to the shape of the flowers [Campanula]

Habitat: Hedge near Folkestone 14/07/1895

Calluna vulgaris L.Ling

Natural Order: ERICACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular or nearly so. Corolla gamopetalous, usually campanulate 4-5 parted, marcescent; or sometimes only sligthly cohering below. Calyx 4-5 parted, persistent. Stamens 8-10, hypogynous. Anthers 2-celled, often with spurlike appendages at base. Fruit capsular or baccate, with several cells, many seeded (stamen Azalea 5).

Etymology: From erico, to break, from some fancied medicinal properties [Erica]

Habitat: Heath New Forest 29/07/1895

Cicendia filiformis (Reich.).Least Gentianella

Natural Order: GENTIANACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Corolla hypogynous, 4-8 fid, often persistent, rotate campanulate or funnel-shaped; throat naked, fimbriate or scaly. Calyx 4-8 fid, inferior, persistent. Stamens 4-8 epipetalous. Anthers versatile. Ovary 1-celled, of 2 carpels. Capsules many seeded, generally 2-valved. Seeds minute, albuminous. Leaves opposite, entire, mostly.

Etymology: From Gentius, an ancient king of Illyria, who discovered its medicinal value [Gentiana]

Habitat: Sandy Bog, New Forest 09/08/1895

Convolvulus arvensis L.Bindweed

Natural Order: CONVOLVULACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Corolla 5-lobed, regular, hypogynous, deciduous, tubular bell or funnel-shaped, plaited. Calyx inferior, of 5 persistent, often unequal sepals. Stamens 4-5, epipetalous. Ovary 2-4 celled, few seeded. Style 1 rarely 2. Stigmas 2. Capsule with valves or bursting transversely. Leaves alternate (o in Cuscuta), exstipulate. Usually twining.

Etymology: From convolvere, to entwine; on reference to the habit of the plants [Convolvulus]

Habitat: Cornfield near Folkestone 18/07/1895

Symphytum officinale L.Common Comfrey

Natural Order: BORAGINACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular or irregular, mostly in scorpioid cymes. Corolla 5 parted, hypogynous, rotate tubular campanulate or salver-shaped. Calyx inferior, 5 parted, persistent. Stamens 5, epipetalous. Ovary of two 2-parted carpels, with each lobe 1-seeded. Style from base of lobes, simple. Fruit of 4 nutlets. Leaves alternate rough, entire, exstipulate.

Etymology: The derivation of Borago is very uncertain [Borago]

Habitat: River-bank near Folkestone 20/07/1895

Solanum dulcamara L.Bitter-sweet

Natural Order: SOLANACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Corolla hypogynous, 5 cleft, rotate, campanulate or salver-shaped. Calyx inferior, 5 parted, persistent. Stamens 5 often cohering. Ovary 2 or sub-4 celled, ovules many, placentas axile. Style simple, stigma simple or lobed. Fruit a berry or capsule. Seeds many, small, reniform, albuminous. Leaves alternate, or in pairs exstipulate.

Etymology: From solanum, the old Latin name used by Pliny [Solanum]

Habitat: Hedge near Folkestone 26/06/1895

Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm.Clove Broom-rape

Natural Order: OROBANCHACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers irregular. Corolla 2-lipped; upper lip arched, lower 3-fid, gaping, hypogynous. Sepals 4-5 free or connate, inferior. Stamens 4, didynamous, epipetalous. Anthers 2-celled. Ovary 1-celled, with 2 or more parietal placentas. Stigma 2-lobed. Fruit capsular, 1-celled, 2-valved, with many minute seeds. Leafless root parasites, alternate scales.

Etymology: From orobos, vetch, and ancho, to strangle; supposed to kill the plants upon which it grows [Orobanche]

Habitat: Parasitical on Galium, Mollugo. Folkestone 09/06/1895

Mentha aquatica L.Capitate Mint

Natural Order: LABIATAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Corolla 2-lipped, upper lip entire or bifid, lower 3-fid or nearly regular, hypogynous. CAlyx inferior, tubular, regular or 2-lipped, persistent. Stamens 4, didynamous, rarely epipetalous. Ovary 4 lobed, 4 celled; ovules solitary in each cell. Style from between the lobes; stigma bifid. Fruit 1-4, 1-seeded nutlets. Stems square. Leaves opposite, no stipules. Flowers cymose, in false whorls.

Etymology: From Latin Labia, a lip; in allusion to the shape of the corolla.

Habitat: Ditch New Forest 29/06/1895

Verbena officinalis L.Vervain

Natural Order: HEDERACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers irregular. Corolla tubular, often 2-lipped (in our plant scarcely) hypogynous. Calyx inferior, tubular, persistent. Stamens usually 4, didynamous. Ovary 2-4 celled. Style 1, simple, terminal. Stigma bifid. Fruit a capsule or berry, with 2-4 nutlets more or less cohering. Seeds ascending, exalbuminous. Leaves opposite or whorled, exstipulate.

Etymology: Verbena was the old Latin name used by Virgil and Pliny [Verbena]

Habitat: Field border near Folkestone 04/07/1895

Pinguicula lusitanica L.Pale Butterwort

Natural Order: LENTIBULARIACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers irregular. Corolla 2-lipped, spurred, hypogynous. Calyx persistent, inferior, divided. Stamens 2. Ovary free, 1-celled of 2 carpels, ovules many. Style short, thick. Stigmas of 2 palates, one smaller or inconspicuous. Capsules 1-celled, 2-valved, many seeded; placenta free central. Seeds minute, exalbuminous. Leaves radical, exstipulate. Marsh plants.

Etymology: Lentibularia from the Latin lenticula, a lentil [Lentibularia now Utricularia]

Habitat: Bog New Forest 02/08/1895

Primula vulgaris Huds..Primrose

Natural Order: PRIMULACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Corolla usually hypogynous (0 in Glaux), rotate bell or funnel-shaped, 4-7 fid. Calyx 4-7 cleft; inferior (except in Samolus). Stamens 5, rarely 4 or 7, inserted in the corolla tube, opposite its lobes. Ovary free, 1-celled, with a free central placenta. Style 1. Stigma capitate. Capsule 5-10 valved at teh top or circumsciss, many seeded. No stipules.

Etymology: From primus, first; in allusion to the early flowering of the plants [Primula]

Habitat: Wood near Folkestone 28/04/1896

Armeria maritima Willd..Thrift

Natural Order: PLUMBAGINACEAE ; Division: Corolliflorae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Corolla 5-fid or nearly 5-petalous, hypogynous. Calyx 5-cleft, persistent, inferior, plicate often scarious. Stamens 5 opposite the petals, hypogynous or epipetalous. Ovary free, of 5 carpels, 1-celled, 1-seeded. Styles 5. Stigmas capillary, or linear. Fruit a 1-seeded utricle. Seed inverted, pendulous. LEaves alternate, or radical, exstipulate.

Etymology: From plumbum, a disorder in the eyes, which some species were said to cure [Plumbago]

Habitat: Rocky sea shore Folkestone 07/06/1895

Chenopodium polyspermum L..Many sedded Goose-foot

Natural Order: CHENOPODIACEAE ; Division: Monochlamydeae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers monoecious or perfect. Perianth 3-5 parted, herbaceous persistent, inferior. Stamens 1-5, opposite perianth-segments, perigynous or hypogynous. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled. Styles divided or rarely 1. Fruit usually an urticle, dry, membranous 1 seeded, indehiscent, included in the perianth often enlarged or fleshy. Leaves alternate or opposite, exstipulate.

Etymology: From chen, a goose, and pous, a foot; many species have leaves similar to the webbed feet of the goose. [Chenopodium]

Habitat: Waste place New Forest 29/06/1895

Rumex acetosella L. Sheep's Sorrel

Natural Order: POLYGONACEAE ; Division: Monochlamydae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers usually perfect. Perianth 3-6 parted, herbaceous, or petaloid, inferior, persistent, imbricate in bud. Stamens 5-8, perigynous or hypogynous, opposite perianth-segments. Ovary 1 free, with 1 erect ovule. Styles and stigmas several. Fruit indehiscent, a nut, naked or covered by the enlarged perianth , 1-seeded. Seed albuminous. Leaves alternate. Stipules acreae.

Etymology: From poly, many and gonu a knee; referring to teh numerous nodes of the stem [Polygonum]

Habitat: Dry bank near Folkestone 27/05/1896

Mercurialis perennis L..Dog's Mercury

Natural Order: EUPHORBIACEAE ; Division: Monochlamydeae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers mono- or dioecious. Perianth 3 parted or 0. MAle flowers of 1 or more stamens. Anthers didymous. Female flowers of 1 superior 2-3 lobed and 2-3 celled ovary; each cell with 1-2 suspended ovules. Styles 2-3. Stigmas compound or simple. Capsules opening with elasticity; 2-3 lobed and celled, cells 1-2 seeded. Seeds pendulous, albuminous.

Etymology: Named in honour of Euphorbus, physician to Juba, king of Mauritania. [Euphorbia]

Habitat: Wood near Folkestone 22/04/1896

Urtica urens L. Small Nettle

Natural Order: URTICACEAE ; Division: Monochlamydeae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers monoecious, dioecious or rarely perfect. Perianth inferior 4-5 parted; or in the female flowers tubular notched or scale-like and open. Stamens 4-5, free inserted at the base of the perinath and opposite to its lobes. Ovary free, 1-celled; ovules solitary. Styles filiform or 0, Fruit minute, indehiscent. Seeds, erect, albuminous.

Etymology: From uro, to burn; in reference to the stinging properties of most of the species [Urtica]

Habitat: Roadside New Forest 10/08/1895

Corylus avellana L. Hazel Nut

Natural Order: AMENTIFERAE ; Division: Monochlamydeae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers monoecious or dioecious, rarely perfect. Barren flowers of all our plants in catkins. Fertile flowers clustered, solitary or in catkins. Ovary with one or several cells. Stigmas 1 or more. Fruit as many as the ovaries, bony or membranous (or drupaceous in Myrica). Young leaves with stipules.

Etymology: From amentum, a strap or thong, and ferre, to carry; in reference to the catkin inflorescence.

Habitat: Wood near Folkestonet 16/02/1896

Taxus baccata L. Yew

Natural Order: CONIFERAE ; Division: Gymnospermeae Class: Dicotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers monoecious or dioecious. Barren flowers of one or more monadelphous stamens; in deciduous catkin, anther of 2 or more lobes. Fertile flowers usually in cones, sometimes solitary. Ovary spread open in the shape of a scale. Ovules naked in pairs on the face of the ovary and inverted; or/in the solitary flower erect. Fruit a cone or seed.

Etymology: From conus, a cone and ferre, to bear; in allusion to the form of the fruit.

Habitat: Chalky cliff near Folkestone 10/04/1896

Paris quadrifolia L. Herb Paris

Natural Order: TRILLIACEAE ; Division: Dictyogenae Class: Moncotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers perfect. Perianth inferior, 6-8 parted; in two whorls; outer whorl or calyx herbaceous; inner or corolla coloured, or in our plants herbaceous. Stamens 6-10. Anthers linear; filaments subulate. Ovary superior, 3-5 celled. Ovules indefinite in number, in two rows in each cell. Styles as many as the cells. Fruit succulent, indehiscent.

Etymology: From trilix; triple; 3 petals, sepals, styles and leaves [Trillium]

Habitat: Damp wood Sandling 26/04/1896

Tamus communis L. Black Bryony

Natural Order: URTICACEAE ; Division: Dictyogenae Class: Monocotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers dioecious. Perianth superior, petal-like, 6-parted. Stamens 6; inserted on teh base of the perianth segments. Anthers bursting inwards. Ovary inferior, 3-celled. Ovules 2 in each cell, erect. Style 1. Stigmas 3, reflexed. Fruit baccate, or dry and flat. Twining plants, leaves broad, alternate, veins reticulate.

Etymology: Named after Dioscorides, a famous Greek physician [Dioscorea]

Habitat: Hedge near Folkestone 10/06/1895

Orchis mascula L. Early purple Orchis

Natural Order: ORCHIDACEAE ; Division: Floridae Class: Monocotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers irregular, perfect. Petals 3,2 above, 1 below (lip) frequently lobed and spurred and unlike the others. Sepals 3, usually coloured. Stamens 3, united in a central column, 2 lateral abortive or (in Cypripedium) the middle one abortive. Pollen powdery or cohering in masses. Ovary 1-celled, inferior. Stigma a viscid space. Capsules 3 valved, seeds many minute.

Etymology: From Orchis, testis; from the frequent shape of the roots [Orchis]

Habitat: Wood near Folkestone 03/05/1896

Iris pseudoacorus L. Yellow Flag

Natural Order: IRIDACEAE ; Division: Floridae Class: Moncotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular or not. Perianth superior, petaloid, 6-parted. Stamens 3, bursting outwards, epigynous. Ovary inferior, 3-celled, ovules many. Style 1. Stigmas 3, dilated often petaloid. Capsules 3-angled, 3-celled, loculicidally 3-valved. Seeds many albuminous. Leaves narrow and ensiform. Roots tuberous or rootstock creeping.

Etymology: From Iris, the rainbow; from the variety and beautiful colouring of the flowers [Iris]

Habitat: Stream near Folkestone 22/06/1895

Narcissus pseudo-narcissus L.Daffodil

Natural Order: AMARYLLIDACEAE ; Division: Floridae Class: Moncotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers regular. Perianth superior, petaloid, 6-partite, with sometimes a crown at the mouth of the tube. Stamens 6, anthers bursting inwards. Ovary 3-celled, inferior, syncarpous. Style 1 filiform or columnar, stigmas 1 or 3. Fruit usually capsular, 3-celled, loculicidally 3-valved. Seed many, albuminous. Leaves radical, narrow. Root bulbous.

Etymology: From Amaryllis; the name of a nymph celebrated by the poet Virgil. [Amaryllis]

Habitat: Wood near Folkestone 22/03/1896

Alisma plantago L. Great Water Plantain

Natural Order: ALISMACEAE ; Division: Floridae Class: Moncotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers usually perfect. Perianth inferior, free, of 6 leaves; 3 inner or all coloured. Stamens 6. Ovary of 3-6 or many carpels free or sligthly connate, (apo-carpous). Style short or 0. Stigma terminal simple or feathery. Ovules 1 or more in each carpel. Fruit of many carpels opening at the suture or indehiscent; seeds 1 or many. Leaves radical. Aquatic.

Etymology: The name [Alisma] is of Celtic origin, from Alis, water.

Habitat: Stream New Forest 03/08/1895

Convallaria majalis L. Lily of the Valley

Natural Order: ASPARAGACEAE ; Division: Floridae Class: Moncotyledones

Characters of the order: Perianth inferior, petaloid, 6-parted or 4-8 parted. Stamens 6 or 4-8, inserted into the receptacle or perianth. Anthers bursting inwards. Ovary superior, 3-(rarely 1-) celled, syncarpous. Ovules 1 or many in each cell. Styles 1-3. Fruit a berry, succulent not bursting. Root not bulbous. Rhizome creeping.

Etymology: From a, intensive, and sparasso, to tear; in reference to the strong prickles of some species [Asparagus]

Habitat: Wood near Lynringe 29/05/1896

Endymion nutans Dum. English Blue-bell

Natural Order: LILIACEAE ; Division: Floridae Class: Moncotyledones

Characters of the order: Perinath inferior, petaloid, 6-leaved, 6-parted or with teeth. Stamens 6, inserted on teh receptacle or on the perianth. Anthers bursting inwards. Ovary superior, 3 celled. Ovules many in each cell. Style 1. Stigmas 3 or 1. Fruit dry, capsular, bursting with 3 valves bearing the dissepriment on their middle.

Etymology: Lilium the old Latin name said to be from Celtic li, signifying whiteness [Lilium]

Habitat: Wood near Folkestone 03/05/1896

Narthecium ossifragum Huds. Bog-AsphodelYellow Flag

Natural Order: MELANTHACEAE ; Division: Floridae Class: Moncotyledones

Characters of the order: Perinath inferior, subherbaceous or petaloid, 6-7 parted. Stamens 6, on the receptacle or perianth. Anthers versatile from below their middle. Ovaries superior, 1 of 3 cells, or 3 of 1 cell more or less connected. Ovules many. Styles 1-3. Fruit of 3 separate 1-celled follicles or a 3-celled capsule.

Etymology: From melas, black and anthos, a flower; in allusion to the dusky colour of the flowers [Melianthum]

Habitat: Bog New Forest 02/08/1895

Typha angustifolia L.Leaaer Reed-mace

Natural Order: TYPHACEAE ; Division: Floridae Class: Monocotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers monoecious in cylindrical spikes or globose clusters; males uppermost. Perianth wanting or of 3 or more scales or hairs. Stamens 1-6, distinct or monadelphous. Anthers erect. Fertile flower. Ovary free, solitary, 1-celled; ovule 1, pendulous. Style simple. Stigmas unilateral. Fruit dry or spongy. Leaves linear. Aquatic.

Etymology: From typhos a marsh; habitat of the species [Typha]

Habitat: Pond near Folkestone 10/06/1895

Arum maculatum L.Cuckoo pint

Natural Order: ARACEAE ; Division: Floridae Class: Monocotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers monoecious with the male flowers uppermost, or perfect, on a spadix and usually in a spathe. Perianth none or of 4-8 scales. Stamens few or many. Anthers turned outwards. Ovary free, with 1 or more cells, ovules 1 or more. Stigmas sessile. Fruit a succulent, 1 or more-celled berry. Seeds 1 or more, albuminous. Leaves often net-veined.

Etymology: Arum the Greek name of the plant [Arum]

Habitat: Hedge bank near Folkestone 03/05/1896

Carex paludosa Good.Lesser Common Sedge

Natural Order: CYPERACEAE ; Division: Glumiferae Class: Monocotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers perfect or unisexual, each from the axil of a scale (or glume). Perainth 0, or rarely membranous. Stamens hypogynous (3 or rarely 2 in our plants) with sometimes a row of bristles or abortive filaments. Anthers erect, entire at the apex. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled. Style simple, 3 or 2-fid. Leaf-sheath entire. Stem solid, often 3-gonous.

Etymology: From a Grecian appelation given to one of the species of the genus [Cyperus]

Habitat: Ditch near Folkestone 27/05/1896

Anthoxanthum odoratum L.Vernal-grass

Natural Order: GRAMINEAE ; Division: Glumiferae Class: Monocotyledones

Characters of the order: Flowers usually perfect, 1-2 or more seated bifariously on a common axis which is contained within an involucre of 2(or 1) valves (glumes) or rarely none, the whole forming a spikelet. Each flower of 1 or 2 scales (pales). Stamens hypogynous, 1-6 usually 3. Anthers versatile, notched at both ends. Ovary 1-celled. Stem cylindrical, usually hollow. Leaf sheaths split.

Etymology: From Latin gramen, inis, grass

Habitat: Meadow near Folkestone 30/05/1896

Lastrea Filix-mas Presl. Male Fern

Natural Order: FILICES ; Class: Cryptogameae

Characters of the order: Leafy plants with a rhizome or trunk. Leaves or fronds usually circinate in vernation, simple or divided. Fructification springing from the veins on the underside or at the edge of teh leaf, of 1-celled capsules (thecae) which are stalked and have and elastic ring or sessile and without a ring.

Etymology: From Latin filix, icis a fern.

Habitat: New Forest 10/08/1895