Monocots

 

Angiosperms having archaic characters such as monoaperturate pollen, trimerous flowers that have one whorl of perianth and/or spirally arranged.

 

 

Order

Species Number

Monocots

 

Acorales

2

Monocots

 

Alismatales

4490

Monocots

 

Petrosaviales

4

Monocots

Liliidae

Dioscoreales

1037

Monocots

Liliidae

Pandanales

1345

Monocots

Liliidae

Liliales

1558

Monocots

Liliidae

Asparagales

26070

Monocots

Commelinids

Unplaced

16

Monocots

Commelinids

Arecales

2361

Monocots

Commelinids

Poales

18325

Monocots

Commelinids

Commelinales

812

Monocots

Commelinids

Zingiberales

2111

 

 

Ceratophyllales

6

Key to the main orders

Archaic Monocotyledons, latifoliate and with reticulate venation, with often imperfect flowers: Alismatales, Acorales

Liliidae: Higher monocotyledons with tepals, angustifoliate, with vessels absent or imperfect. Flowers often euanthial (often bisexual)
1. Unisexual flowers. Latifoliate climbers ...Dioscoreales
1. Bisexual flowers. Generally herbaceous angustifoliate plants ...2
2. Flowers generally with superior ovary. Tepals with frequent presence of markings. Nectaries at the base of tepals or stamens. Seeds without black crust or phytoleman ...Liliales
2. Flowers generally with inferior ovary. Tepals generally without markings. Nectaries at the base of the ovary. seeds with phytoleman. .... Asparagales


Commelinidae: Higher monocotyledones with sepals and petals, and perfect vessels. Flowers often pseudanthial (With inflorescence acting as a a flower unit).
1. Perianth well developed; flowers well individualized. Absence of coloured inflorescence bracts. ...2
2. Stemless herbaceous plants with leaves often in basal rosettes, parallel venation, trimerous androecium ...Commelinales
2. Large caulescent herbaceous plants, leaves with pinnate venation. One or five fertile stamens. ...Zingiberales
1. Perianth sepaloid or reduced, discrete flowers grouped in inflorescences supported by coloured bracts (Bromeliaceae)
3. Megafoliate trees, spathiflora ...Arecales
3. Angustifoliate herbs ...Poales

Monocot characteristics

Monocots

Embryo: One cotyledons (seed leaves) present; endosperm frequemtly present in the seed

Roots: The primary root is of short duration and is soon replaced by adventitious roots, which from a fibrous root system or sometimes a bundle of fleshy roots.

Growth Form: Mostly herbaceous; a few are arborescent (tree-like)

Pollen: Basically monocolpate (having one furrow or pore)

Vascular system: Consists of numerous scattered bundles, without definite arrangment and in a ground parenchyma; cambium only exceptionally present; no differentiation into cortical and stelar regions in stems

Leaves: Usually parallel-veined commonly oblong or linear in shape and often sheathing at the base; petiole (stalk) seldom developed and stipules absent.

Flowers: Parts are usually in Threes or multiple of three.

 

examples of tricolpate, triporate and monocolpate pollen grains

Plates

Archaic monocotyledons

Latifoliate and with reticulate venation, with often imperfect flowers.

Alismatales

Alismatales: Araceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Climber or herbaceous often epiphytic.

Leaves sagittate with pinnate or palmate venation.

Inflorescence a showy spathe sometimes coloured, leafy or fleshy, protecting the spadix on which the flowers are arranged in two zones: the zone of the female flowers at the base and above that the zone of male flowers. Each of these zones may be surmounted by a belt of sterile flowers having long tendrils that hold the pollinators on the outside and then on the inside.

Flowers unisexual, without perianth or juts one whorl.

Madagascar
amorphophallus ankarana in the tsingy of Behmara Madagascar
amorphophallus ankarana in the tsingy of Behmara Madagascar
typhonodorum lindleyanum near Fort-Dauphin
typhonodorum lindleyanum near Fort-Dauphin

 

Alismatales: Alismataceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Aquatic herbs, rooted at the bottom of the bed.

Leaves sagitate or linear to cordate.

Flowers with sepals and petals, trimerous

stamen 6 to many

Carpels 6 to many and free.

 

Hydrocharitaceae

Submerged plants. Ovary inferior. Pollen is globular and free but in the marine genera (Thalassia and Halophila) - the pollen grains are carried in chains, like strings of beads. ovary is inferior with 2 - 15 united carpels containing a single locule with numerous ovules on parietal placentas which either protrude nearly to the centre of the ovary or are incompletely developed

 

 

Some genera of the Hydrocharitaceae

 

Evolution of seagrasses from algae. Based on Plants in Action, Atwell, et al. (textbook) 1999. Figure 18.7. p182. W.C. Dennison.

source Seagrass blog: http://teamseagrass.blogspot.com/2006/10/seagrasses-of-singapore.html

The freshly blooming female flowers of Tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) float on the water on long stalks in large numbers.

While the entire shore is dusted in a sprinkling of tiny white male flowers like wedding confetti! The three long white petals of the female flowers generally drop off after a day, so they seem to be blooming just for the newly weds!

shows how the three petals of the unpollinated female flowers 'zip up' together when submerged, and spread apart on the water surface. The petals are water repellent and only the centre of the flower is not water repellent.
The little white male flowers emerge from bracts that lie close to the ground. These male flowers have one end that is water repellent and another end that is not. That's why they appear to 'stand up' on the water surface (or even wet fingers) and also tend to cluster together in rafts.


The combined features of the male and female flowers allow the male flowers to zoom into the correct spot on the female flower! Here's a whole bunch of male flowers almost forming a queue to pollinate the female. Shufen and I also discovered that once the female flower is pollinated, the petals no long 'zip up' underwater.

 

Liliidae

Higher monocot with tepals, angustifoliate with vessels obsent or imperfect. Generally euanthial.

Liliales

Liliales: Liliaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Perenial herbs with bulbs.

Flowers with 6 tepals and with nectaries at the base of each tepal.

Ovary 3 locular and superior.

Fruit loculicidal capsule.

Lilium martagon (Liliaceae) Pyrénées
Lilium martagon (Liliaceae) Pyrénées
Merendera bulbocodium in Aragon (Colchicaceae) Pyrénées
Merendera bulbocodium in Aragon (Colchicaceae) Pyrénées
) Paris quadrifolia (Triliaceae)
Luzuragia parviflora (Luzuriagaceae) New Zealand
Luzuriaga polyphylla (Luzuriagaceae) Chile
Alstroemeria umbellata (Alstroemeriaceae) Chile

 

Asparagales

Asparagales: Orchidaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Epiphtes, terrestrial herbs or rarely saprophytes

Epiphytes often have internodes thickened into pseudobulbs and aerial roots covered by a velamen.

Flowers zygomorphic with 6 tepals, one forming the attractive part or labellum, prolonged sometimes by a nectariferous spur.

Ovary inferior and resupinate.

Stamens 1 (-2) fused, and style fused and forming the column.

Fruit a capsule with minuscule seeds.

Orchid column

Pyrénées
Gymnadenia conopea
Gymnadenia conopea
Nigritella nigra
Ophyrys apifera
    Chile  
Phalanthera bifolia
neottia nidus-avis
Codonorchis lesonii
Chloraea magellanica
Madagascar    
Chloraea magellanica
bulbophyllum baronii bulbophyllum baronii bulbophyllum coriophorum
bulbophyllum coriophorum Bulbophyllum sp.
Bulbophyllum sp.
Microcoelia gilpinae
Microcoelia gilpinae
Cymbidiella flabellata
Bulbophyllum francoisii
Vanilla madagascariensis

 

Asparagales: Iridaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous with rhizomes, tubers or bulbs.

Leaves often distichous.

Ovary inferior and stamen only 3.

Stigmas often petaloid.

Pyrénées
 
Iris latifolia (Iridaceae)
Iris latifolia (Iridaceae)
Iris latifolia (Iridaceae)

 

Asparagales: Agavaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Monocauline shrubs with lignified stipe.

Leaves succulent.

Tepal 6 fused in a tube.

Ovary inferior to superior.

example of adavanced coevolution between a pollinator and a plant species:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0902a.htm

 

Asparagales: Alliaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Perenial herbs with bulbs often with garlic smell.

Inflorescence an umbel supported by bracts.

Flowers with 6 tepals, trimerous.

Loculicidal capsule.

Kyrgyzstan
Allium carolinianum
Allium carolinianum
Allium hymenorrhizum
Allium semenovi
habitat
inflorescence
Allium semenovi
Allium semenovi
Allium oreophilum
Allium oreophilum

 

Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Perennial herbs with bulbs, sometimes rhizomes.

Inflorescence an umbel or reduced to a few flowers and supported by a bract or spathe.

Flowers with 6 tepals, trimerous, stamens 6. Ovary inferior.

Loculicidal capsule or berry.

Commelinidae

Higher monocots with sepals and petals, perfect vessels and often pseudanthial.

Arecales

Arecales: Arecaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Trees or shrubs, monocauline with a lignified stipe.

Leaves very large palmate or pinnate sheathed.

Inflorescence in large lateral panicle protected by a ligneous spathe.

Flowers trimerous with 3+3 tepals, mostly unisexual and small.

Infructescence of berries or drupes sometimes very large (Cocos) or with scaly pericarp (Raphia)

Chile
Jubaea chilensis
Jubaea chilensis
Jubaea chilensis
Jubaea chilensis
New Zealand
Rhopalostylis sapida
Rhopalostylis sapida
Rhopalostylis sapida
Rhopalostylis sapida
Madagascar
bismarckia nobilis
bismarckia nobilis
bismarckia nobilis
dypsis decaryi
dypsis decaryi
dypsis decaryi
dypsis louvelii
dypsis louvelii

 

Poales

Character

Juncaceae (Rushes)

Cyperaceae (Sedges)

Poaceae (Grasses)

Genera/Species

8/300

146/5315

650-785/10000

Habitat

wet areas

wet areas or sterile soils

dry to moist areas

Stem cross section

terete

triangular

terete or ellipsoid

Internodes

solid, with large pith

usually solid

usually hollow, or less commonly solid

Nodes

not jointed

not jointed

jointed

Leaf Ranks

3

3

2

Leaf Blade

flat to terete

flat

flat

Leaf Sheath

open

closed

open with ligule

Inflorescence

basically cymose, and often congested

arranged in spikelets

arranged in spikelets

Number of bracts subtending each flower

2 or more

1 (glume, scale)

usually 2 (palea and lemma)

Perianth

usually 6 chaffy tepals

absent, or reduced to a varying number of bristles or scales

reduced to 2 (or sometimes 3) lodicules

Anther attachement

basifixed

basifixed

basifixed, but deeply agittate and appearing versatile

Pollen

in tetrads

single, but each grain ("pseudomonad") representing a degraded tetrad

single

Fruit Type

loculicidal capsule

achene

caryopsis (grain)

Embryo

surrounded by endosperm

embedded in base of endoseprm

outside of endosperm

 

Poales: Juncaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous plants, Stem solid.

Leaves linear, flat or cylindrical with an open sheath.

Flowers trimerous with 6 tepals. Actinomorphic with scarious tepals.

Loculicidal capsule.

Chile
  New Zealand
Marsippospermum grandiflorum
Marsippospermum grandiflorum
Marsippospermum gracile
Marsippospermum gracile

 

Poales: Cyperaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous plants with rhizomes and stlons. Stem solid with usually a triangular section and without nodes.

Monoecious plants.

Leaves in three rows.

Flowers in spikes, capitulum or panicle. Spikes unisexual or bisexual.

Flowers without perianth, trimerous. Male flowers reduced to three stamens supported by a bract. Female flower with unilocular ovary surrounded (Carex) by a utriculus.

Trigonial achene.

 

Utriculus from The Observer's Book of Grasses, Sedges and Rushes. F.Rose et al. 1965.

 

Inflorescences of Cyperaceae

Pyrénées
  New Zealand  
scirpus cespitosus
scirpus cespitosus
Carex pumila
Carex pumila
Carex secta
Desmoschoenus spiralis
Desmoschoenus spiralis
Gahnia rigida
Oreobolus pectinatus Oreobolus pectinatus
Uncinia divaricata
Uncinia divaricata

 

Poales: Poaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous with rhizomes. Stems hollow except at nodes.

Leaves in two rows. Ligule membranous or hairy.

Flowers reduced grouped in a basic floral unit, the spikelet, located above two glumes.

Flowers with two tiny tepals (lodicules) trimerous and surrounded by two gummelles (palea and lemma). Stigmas feathery.

Carypopsis hard indehiscent fruit with the pericarp stuck to the inner integument of the ovule.

Spikelet from The Observer's Book of Grasses, Sedges and Rushes. F.Rose et al. 1965.

Poaceae: Ligule forms. From Cronquist et al. 1977.

Kyrgyzstan
    New Zealand
Stipa
Stipa
Stipa
Chionochloa australis
Chionochloa australis
Chionochloa macra
Chionochloa rubra
Chionochloa rubra
   
Poa pygmaea
Poa pygmaea
   

 

Commelinales

Commelinales: Commelinaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Herbaceous, stem more or less succulent.

Leaves sheathed.

Inflorescence supported by a membranous spathe.

Flowers trimerous with sepals and petals, actinomorphic. Stamens often with staminodes and filaments hairy.

Loculicidal capsule. Seed often arillate.

 

Zingiberales

Zingiberales: Marantaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Caulescent or acauline perennial herbs.

Blade often marked with dark spots (assimilation in a dark environment), pinnate venation. Petiole distinct articulated at the base by a pulvinus.

Flowers trimerous, asymetrical, epigynous. One fertile half-stamen (thecae) the other half petaloid. Three to four petaloid staminodes one of which form a labellum or a spur. Ovary inferior, style robust curved and thickened at the tip often curved with a cap of staminodial origin.

Spiny or verrucose capsule sometimes berry.

flowering plant

inflorescence

sepals and petals

staminodes
Calathea loeseneri
Calathea loeseneri
sepals and petals
staminodes

ovary

calyx apex

style and stigmas

cuculate staminode
ovary
calyx apex
style and stigmas
cuculate staminode

stigmas

thecae

style and staminodes

flower

stigmas

thecae

style and staminodes

style and staminodes

 

Zingiberales: Strelitziaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Large perennial herbaceous or with monocauline arborescent structure.

Leaves large distichous or in fantail.

Inflorescence distichous spike of cymes inserted in large bracts.

Flowers trimerous, zygomorphic with 5 stamens, epigynous. Three external petaloid tepals, three internal tepals of which two are larger, united in the form of an arrow surrounding stamens and style. Ovary inferior.

Loculicidal capsule.

Madagascar
Ravenala madagascariensis
Ravenala madagascariensis
Ravenala madagascariensis

 

Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae (Spichiger, R. et al. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions, 2004)

Large perennial herbs with rhizomes.

Leaves distichous sheathed and ligulate.

Flowers trimerous with sepals and petals, epigynous. Only one fertile stamen with bilocular anther. Two sterile stamens transformed into petaloid labellum. Ovary inferior, epigynous disc formed of two glands. Style passing between the two thecae of the anther.

Indehiscent capsule sometimes berry.

 

 

Zingiberaceae flower morphology in Malaisia ' Gingers of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore' . K. Larsen 1999

Bibliography

Judd, W.S.; Campbell, C.S.; Kellogg, E.A.; Stevens, P.F. 1999. 'Plants systematics, a phylogentic approach' Sinauer Associates Inc. Publ. , Sunderland, 464p.

Heywood, V.H. 1985 'Flowering Plants of the World' Equinox publ., Oxford, 336p.

Spichiger, R.; Savolainen, V.; Perret, M.; Figeat, M. 'Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants: A New Phylogenetic Approach to Angiosperms of the Temperate and Tropical Regions Published by Science Publishers, 2004

 

Home page

Key to the main orders

Monocots characteristics

Plates

Archaic monocotyledons

Liliidae

Commelinidae

Maria Vorontsova Grasses presentation (pdf)

André Schuiteman Orchids presentation (pdf)

Bibliography

Practical

Alismatales

Liliales

Asparagales

Poales

Zingiberales

 

 

     

Alismatales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Monocots

Alismatales

Araceae

4025

Monocots

Alismatales

Tofieldiaceae

27

Monocots

Alismatales

Hydrocharitaceae

116

Monocots

Alismatales

Butomaceae

1

Monocots

Alismatales

Alismataceae

88

Monocots

Alismatales

Scheuchzeriaceae

1

Monocots

Alismatales

Aponogetonaceae

43

Monocots

Alismatales

Juncaginaceae

15

Monocots

Alismatales

Posidoniaceae

9

Monocots

Alismatales

Ruppiaceae

1-10

Monocots

Alismatales

Cymodoceaceae

16

Monocots

Alismatales

Zosteraceae

14

Monocots

Alismatales

Potamogetonaceae

102

ARACEAE Arum italicum

Questions: what does the spathe contain ?

An inflorescence of dense unisexual flowers without any perianth.

How many stamens does a male flower have ?

This is difficult to know as all the flowers are next to each other.

On young female flowers the stigmas is covered by a drop which is later resorbed ?

This is a pollination mechanism to attract pollen.

polination ?

Active pollination by flies that became trapped in the spathe.

Floral Formula:

 

♀ K0 C0 A0 G1*Vm2–3

 

♂ K0 C0 A4* G0
dissected spathe and leaf
sterile female flowers and female flower male flowers
dissected spathe stigmas
female flowers cross section of the ovaries
Floral Diagram

Liliales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Monocots

Liliales

Corsiaceae

30

Monocots

Liliales

Campynemataceae

4

Monocots

Liliales

Melanthiaceae

170

Monocots

Liliales

Petermanniaceae

1

Monocots

Liliales

Colchicaceae

245

Monocots

Liliales

Luzuriagaceae

5

Monocots

Liliales

Alstroemeriaceae

170

Monocots

Liliales

Rhipogonaceae

6

Monocots

Liliales

Philesiaceae

2

Monocots

Liliales

Smilacaceae

315

Monocots

Liliales

610

LILIACEAE Fritillaria meleagris

Questions: Observe the tepals why are they unusual ?

They have a nectary pouch inside (Liliales).

Structure of the gynoecium ?

3 fused carpels with few seeds in each locule. Ovary superior.

Floral Formula:

P3+3* A3 ↔3* G(3)↓Va
stamen, ovary and cross section of the ovary
tepals and nectary
flower

 

Floral diagram

Asparagales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Monocots

Asparagales

Orchidaceae

22075

Monocots

Asparagales

Boryaceae

12

Monocots

Asparagales

Blandfordiaceae

4

Monocots

Asparagales

Lanariaceae

1

Monocots

Asparagales

Asteliaceae

36

Monocots

Asparagales

Hypoxidaceae

100-220

Monocots

Asparagales

Ixioliriaceae

3

Monocots

Asparagales

Tecophilaeaceae

23

Monocots

Asparagales

Doryanthaceae

2

Monocots

Asparagales

Iridaceae

2025

Monocots

Asparagales

Xeronemataceae

2

Monocots

Asparagales

Hemerocallidaceae

85

Monocots

Asparagales

Xanthorrhoeaceae

30

Monocots

Asparagales

Asphodelaceae

785

Monocots

Asparagales

Agapanthaceae

1605

Monocots

Asparagales

Alliaceae

795

Monocots

Asparagales

800

Monocots

Asparagales

Aphyllanthaceae

1

Monocots

Asparagales

Themidaceae

Monocots

Asparagales

265

Monocots

Asparagales

Agavaceae

637

Monocots

Asparagales

Laxmanniaceae

92

Monocots

Asparagales

Asparagaceae

2480

Monocots

Asparagales

AMARYLLIDACEAE Narcissus poeticus

Questions: How the morphology of this flower is different from a Liliaceae ?

Nectaries are not located on the tepals, tepals are fused in a tube and the the tepals have a tubular outgrowth the corona. Stamens as well are fused onto the corolla tube.

What is the position of the ovary ?

The ovary is inferior.

Floral Formula

[P(3+3: corona)↓ A3↔3*] Ĝ(3)↓Va
corolla corolla tube
cross section of the ovary corona and anthers

Floral diagram apex of corolla tube

 

Orchidaceae

Keying out exercise

Dressler, R.L. 1993. Field Guide to the Orchids of Costa Rica and Panama. link

1. Leaves not coinlike or erect or on long stems; inflorescence short or long ...2

2. Stems long, usually more than half lenght of leaves; leaves usually rounded or abruptly tapering basally ...3

3. Flowers racemose on a definite rachis ...Key 2.

Key 2:

1. Inflorescence terminal ...2

2. Leaves usually elliptic (or tapering basally above inflorescence) ...13

13. Inflorescence subequal to leaves or much longer ...14

14. Dorsal sepal free to base ...16

16. Lateral sepals free for at least half their lenght ...17

17. Sepals < 10 mm long ...18

18. Apex of lip squarish; sepals hairy within; corolla translucent yellow-green. Plants 30-50 cm, raceme subequal leaves .................................Pleurothallis gelida

 



Orchidaceae
Pleurothallis gelida Lindl.

Plant with pseudo-bulb and with sympodial growth. Inflorescence terminal, racemose longer than the leaves. Leaves elliptic, glabrous. Lateral sepals fused at base but not fused to the dorsal one. Sepals less than 10 mm long yellow-green. Lip very short hidden inside the sepals, with a square apex.

flower flower

lateral sepals lateral sepals

dorsal sepal dorsal sepal

lateral petals lateral petals

lip lip

lip lip

lip and lateral petal lip and lateral petal

column column

column apex column apex

pollinia and anther cap pollinia and anther cap

flowering branch

flowers

stem apex and leaf base
flowers
flowers

 

Ruscaceae


RUSCACEAE Ruscus acuealtus

Questions: Dioecious or monoecious ?

Dioecious.

Why do we call the male and female flowers functionally male and female ?

because they still have reduced male or female organs: staminodes and pistillodes

Structure of the gynoecium ?

3 fused carpels but only one stigmas and a unilocular ovary with one ovule forming a drupe.

Floral Formula:

♂ P3+3* A(6)↓ G(3)↓r

 

♀ P3+3* A(6)r G(3)↓Vb1
female flower
male flower flowering branch
male flower androecium
female flower female flower

 

Floral diagrams

 

Hyacintoides hybrids

Rix, M. 2004. '481. Hyacinthoides non-scripta' Curtis's Botanical Magazine 21:20-25

Hyacinthoides contains five species, of which three, H. non-scripta, H. hispanica (Miller) Rothm. and H. italica (L.) Rothm. are found in most floras. In H. italica, which is found in the Basses Alpes and the Alpes Maritimes, the leaves are narrow and the flowers starry with segments only 5-7 mm long. In southwest Portugal there occurs a variety of H. italica, sometimes considered a distinct species, H. vicentina (Hoffmans. & Link) Rothm., which is smaller, with fewer flowers;
these two species are closest to Scilla. Another species, H. reverchonii (Degen & Hervier) F. Speta, from the Sierra de Cazorla in Spain, is also close to H. italica, but has long leaves almost equalling the scape, and a lax raceme, the flowers with erect, deep blue perianth segments (Heywood, 1980).

Hyacinthoides hispanica is found in Spain, Portugal and North Africa, and has open bell-shaped flowers, in which the segments do not curl back; the flowers also hang down all round the stem, not all to one side as do those of common BLUEBELLS. All six stamens are nearly equal, with blue anthers, whereas in H. non-scripta three of the stamens are longer and the anthers are white. In the wild H. hispanica is a delicate plant, found in limestone pavements and open woods, very different from the robust cultivated plants often called SPANISH BLUEBELLS. These cultivated bluebells are robust and fertile, and are probably of hybrid origin. In gardens and woods adjacent to gardens, they hybridise with wild H. non-scripta, and these complex hybrids have been called H.x massartiana Geerinck (1996). There has been some concern that the hybrids may invade the gene pool of the native BLUEBELL; in many places they are aggressive weeds, increasing both by division of the bulbs and by seed.

 

 

Hyacinthaceae Hyacinthoides non-scripta

 

Questions: Identify the possible Hyacinthoides species and hybrids

Plant 1 could be H. hispanica, 2 and 3 H. x massartiana and Plant 4 H. non-scripta

Plants 1,2,3 & 4
Flower 1 Flower 2 Flower 3 Flower 4
Flower 1,2,3 & 4 Plants 1,2,3 & 4

 

Poales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Monocots

Poales

Typhaceae

30

Monocots

Poales

Bromeliaceae

4

Monocots

Poales

Rapateaceae

170

Monocots

Poales

Xyridaceae

1

Monocots

Poales

Eriocaulaceae

245

Monocots

Poales

Mayacaeae

5

Monocots

Poales

Thurniaceae

170

Monocots

Poales

Juncaceae

6

Monocots

Poales

Cyperaceae

2

Monocots

Poales

Anarthriaceae

315

Monocots

Poales

Centrolepidaceae

610

Monocots

Poales

Restionaceae

500

Monocots

Poales

Flagellariaceae

4

Monocots

Poales

Joinvilleaceae

2

Monocots

Poales

Ecdeiocoleaceae

3

Monocots

Poales

Poaceae

10035

Key from the Field Studies Council Key adapted from 'A Lateral Key to Common Grasses' by C.A. Sinker.

 

Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4

 

Spikelet formula (http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/taes/tracy/610/spikeletF.html)

The grass spikelet formula as used here summarizes some of the important data for grass identification. The ideas are expanded from those discussed in The grass spikelet formula: an aid to teaching and identification by K.W. Allred and J. T. Columbus [J. of Range Mgmt. 41(4): 350-351]. The spikelet formula somewhat follows the long used notations for floral formulas.

Information is summarized about glumes (G), fertile florets (F), reduced florets (R), spikelet disarticulation (a line above or below glumes), and inflorescence type(s). The parts are placed in the same sequence as the spikelet they represent.

Additional information can be summarized in the formula by adding superscripts and subscripts to the left and right of the R, F, and G. The superscript to the left indicates the number of awn per lemma, superscript to the right indicates the number of parts (e.g. G 2 = glumes two).

 

  glumes absent
  one glume present (usually the second)
  spikelet disarticulation below the glumes
  spikelet disarticulation below glumes, glumes two, 1-awned
pan   panicle inflorescence
spicate raceme   spicate raceme inflorescence
raceme   raceme inflorescence
spike   spike inflorescence
pan spic 1o unil br   panicle of spicate primary unlateral branches

Poaceae three grasses to identify with the Field Studies Council Key adapted from 'A Lateral Key to Common Grasses' by C.A. Sinker.

Location(s): Wild area Kew

Dissect spikelets and establish their spikelet formula.

Grass A has two sterile florets with awned lemmas. The awn is inserted at the base of the cleft lemma. The glummes are awnless. The terminal fertile floret has two stamens and small membranous lemma and palea.

Grass B has one fertile floret. The Glummes are awnless and cover the flower. The floret has three stamens and the awn a long awn is inserted at the base of it. The awn is longer than the spikelet.

Grass C has spikelets with several fertile florets. The glummes are shorter than the spikelet and without an awn. Each lemma has a long awn inserted at the top. The palea is membranous.

Key:

Grass A: 2; 5; 7; 10; 12; 15 Anthoxanthum odoratum

Grass B: 2; 5; 7; 11; 13; 14 Alopecurus pratensis

Grass C: 3; 4; 6; 10; 13; 16 Bromus hordeaceus

Grass A Grass C
Grass B
Grass A Grass B
dissected spikelet dissected spikelet and ligule dissected spikelet and ligule
spikelet spikelet opened spikelet
floret glumme palea
ligule ligule ligule
. F1
1R2
. ----
0G2
. R0
1F1
0G2
.---
.1R1
1F5
. ----
0G2
spikelet formula spikelet formula spikelet formula

 


POACEAE Coix lacryma-jobi L.

JOB'S TEARS

Questions: Identify the structure of the inflorescence.

There is one basal female spikelet enclosed within a cartilaginous spathe called the utricule. the Rachis of the inflorescence emmerges from the utricule and bears several more whorled male spikelet.

Structure of the spikelet ?

Each are one flowered with unisexual florets. Glummes, lemmas and palea are membranous

What could be the role of the utricule ?

to protect the caryopsis from herbivores.

inflorescence male spikelet
female spikelet utricule
section of the utricule dissected male floret

Zingiberales

 

Order

Family

Species Number

Monocots

Zingiberales

Musaceae

41

Monocots

Zingiberales

Heliconiaceae

100-200

Monocots

Zingiberales

Strelitziaceae

7

Monocots

Zingiberales

Lowiaceae

15

Monocots

Zingiberales

Cannaceae

10

Monocots

Zingiberales

Marantaceae

550

Monocots

Zingiberales

Zingiberaceae

1075-1300

Monocots

Zingiberales

110

 


MARANTACEAE Maranthochloa cuspidata

Questions: Identify the androecium.

Staminodes and stamen in 2 whorls: outer whorl with 1 or 2 petaloid staminodes, rarely absent; inner whorl with 1 hooded (cucullate) staminode enclosing terminal portion of pistil at anthesis and bearing a lateral appendage (trigger), 1 thickened and fleshy (callose) staminode, and 1 fertile thecae and 1narrowly petaloid thecae.

Pollination ?

Mostly self pollinated. But trigger pollination possible with cucullate staminode.

Structure of the gynoecium ?

3 fused carpels, inferior ovary but fruit a capsule with only one seed.

 


flower perianth
From left to right Cucullate staminode with style and trigger, fertile thecae and petaloid thecae, inner whorl of petaloid staminode

Fertile thecae
Cucullate staminode with style and trigger cross section of the ovary

Floral Formula:

K(3)* C(3)* A2 petaloid↔1cucullate:1callose:1/2petaloid :1/2fertile↓ Ĝ(3)↓Va1
Floral diagram style

 


CANNACEAE Canna indica L.

Questions: Identify the androecium.

Staminodes and stamen in 2 whorls: outer whorl with 2 petaloid staminodes; inner whorl with 2 petaloid staminode, and 1 fertile thecae and 1narrowly petaloid thecae.

Calyx and corolla ?

Calyx and corolla are formed of three fused sepals and petals. Those are less showy than the staminodes almost redundant.

Structure of the gynoecium ?

3 fused carpels with warty exocarp, inferior ovary but fruit a capsule with several seeds.

flower stigmas and fertile thecae
cross section of the ovary fertile and petaloid thecae

Floral Formula:

K(3)* C(3)* A2petaloid↔1petaloid:1/2petaloid :1/2fertile↓ Ĝ(3)*Va

 

Floral diagram stigmas

 


COSTACEAE Costus lucanusianus Braun-Blanq.& K.Schum.

 

Questions: Identify the androecium.

Staminodes and stamen in 2 whorls: outer whorl with 2 petaloid staminodes fused into a labellum; inner whorl with 1 fertile petaloid stamen. The style passes between the two thecae and the stigmas emerges from the anther.

Calyx and corolla ?

Calyx and corolla are formed of three fused sepals and petals. Those are less showy than the staminodes almost redundant.

Floral Formula:

K(3)* C(3)* A(2labellum)
↔1↓ Ĝ(3)*Va
petaloid stamen, style and stigmas
flower dissection cross section of the ovary labellum
flower stigmas

Floral diagram anther with style removed

 

 

Practical

Alismatales

Liliales

Asparagales

Poales

Zingiberales